Management of Municipal Solid Waste by Vermicompost

NOOR MOHAMMED 10011D8103 M .TECH 3 rd SEM - INFRA STRUCTURE

Introduction
 There has been a significant increase in MSW(Municipal solid waste)

generation in India in the last few decades.
 This is largely because of rapid population growth and economic development in the country.

Solid waste management has become a major environmental issue in India
 Land fills are the most common means of solid waste disposal.

But, the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing land fills, and new sites are difficult to establish.
The per capita of MSW generated daily, in India ranges from about 100 gm in small towns to 500 gm in large towns

 The average collection efficiency for MSW in Indian cities is about 72.5% and around 70% of the cities lack adequate waste transport capacities

 The municipalities in India therefore face the challenge of reinforcing

their available infrastructure for efficient MSW management and ensuring the scientific disposal of MSW.
It is understood by house hold survey, that 70 to 75 tones of MSW in ELURU is being generated every day.  The available quantities can safely and conveniently generate about 3 MWs of power or can be converted in to vermin compost as manure for farmers.

Solid waste

Segregation at source

Biodegradables

Non-biodegradables

Paper Compost /vermicompost Cloth Plastic Glass Metal Recycling through scrap dealers

Recycle

What is Vermicompost?

Vermicomposting is a simple biotechnological process of composting organic waste in to compost with the help of earthworms.

 Vermicompost is an organic manure (biofertilize) produced as the vermicast by earth worm feeding on biological waste material, plant residue.

 Vermicomposting, or worm composting, is considered an easy way to recycle food wastes. When cared for properly, worms process food quickly and transform food wastes into nutrient-rich castings  In the process of breaking down food waste, worms feed on microorganisms, which grow on the surface of the waste, and excrete particles of smaller size, which are called worm castings.  Vermicomposting is an important aspect, as it converts waste to wealth by using cheap eco-friendly option with activity of earthworm
 vermicompost are healthier because the nutrients are more available to plants and less chemical waste leaches into the soil and groundwater

What worms are good for vermicomposting?

 Non-burrowing types are used for vermicomposting. They are red or purple, live on the soil surface and help digest 90% organic waste materials.  Don’t use the pale-coloured ones that live inside the soil and are generally seen in rice fields. These are the burrowing types which are not used for vermicomposting since they eat 90% soil.

Nutrient Content Of Vermicompost
NITROGEN PHOSPHOROUS POTASH CALCIUM MAGNESIUM IRON MANGANESE 0.8 to 1.0 % 0.8 to 1.0 % 0.8 to 1.0 % 0.44% 0.15% 27.3 ppm 16.4 ppm

ZINC
COPPER

18.0 ppm
7.6 ppm

Advantages of using vermicompost :
 Increases water-holding capacity of soil
 Reduces salinization and acidification  Reduces soil erosion  Enhances soil productivity  Promotes faster growth of plants, increases crop yield  Induces resistance to pest and disease attack Easy to produce with low cost

Earth worms (in case of excess) can be used as a feed for poultry and fish
Reduces the cost of cultivation by providing higher returns

Vermicompost : the process
Biodegradable Garbage

Preparation of waste beds after segregation

Waste beds covered with dung slurry

Transfer to pits –Vermiculture treatment

Screening

Final product (Vermicompost)

Pulverisation

Segregation

Preparation Of Vermi Bed

Applications of Vermicompost  Add 15 -20 gms of Vermi Compost to a liter of water and use this to water potted plants daily.  Use 1 part of Vermi Castings, 1 part sand and 1 part garden soil and mix well before use.  For Crop like Paddy, Ragi and Legumes, Sugercane, Cotton, Vegetables etc., apply 300 to 500 Kg / acre by broadcasting. Apply 1 3Kgs / tree (depending upon age) twice a year. For Crops like Coconut, Rubber, Groundnut, Mango, Cashew and other plantation crops Application of Vermicompost for different fields BANANA FLOWERS 1 metric ton / acre 2 metric ton / acre

GRAPES
TE COFFEE MULBERRY

1.5 metric ton / acre
1.5 metric ton / acre 1 metric ton / acre 1 metric ton / acre

Comparison between Vermicast V/s. Chemical Fertilizers

Criteria for Comparison
Macro nutrient contents

Chemical Fertilizers
Mostly contains only one (N in urea) or at the most two (N & P in DAP) nutrients in any one type of chemical fertilizer

Vermicast
Contains all i.e. nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) & potassium (K) in sufficient quantities

Secondary nutrient contents

Not available

Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) & sulphur (S) is available in required quantities Helps in the control of soil pH and checks the salinity and alkalinity in soil

pH balancing

Disturb soil pH to create salinity and alkalinity conditions

Soil Texture

Damages soil texture to reduce aeration

Improves soil texture for better aeration

Conclusions
 The central idea of VERMICOMPOST is not only to manage the solid waste system by producing wealth from it but also to save the environment from pollution..  Collection, transportation and disposal of all the three components of waste lack in terms of infrastructure  however, the weakest link in the chain of waste management in Indian situations is the collection of waste.  Therefore, by managing the wet waste generated in the town MCE can earn Rs 0.89 Crores per annum, which is a considerable amount for providing better services. Vermicast has improved plants survival rates from average 40 percent to over 85 percent in most cases

References
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 1, No1,2010  Management of Municipal Solid Waste by Vermicompost. A case study of Eluru • J.Sudhir Kumar - Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical engg, Sir C.R.Reddy college of engg, Eluru • Venkata Subbiah.K - Professor, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Andhra University, Vishakapatnam • Prasada Rao.P.V.V - Professor, Dept of Environment Science, College of Engineering, Andhra University, Vishakapatnam • “ www.agricare.org” accessed on 14 th June, 2010

• www.agri.and.nic.in/vermi_culture accessed on 14 th June, 2010

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