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Optical Fiber Classification


Glass core glass clad Doped silica core clad All plastic fiber

Can be classified in a number of ways On the basis of manufacturing


Single component/Multi component

On the basis of profile Step index


Multi mode Mono mode

Graded index
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Multi Mode Step Index


Made up of glass or doped silica Reasonably large core diameter and NA to

facilitate efficient coupling of incoherent light Performance characteristics vary widely depending upon material used in fabrication Structure
Core diameter: Clad diameter: Buffer jacket diameter: Numerical Aperture:
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50 to 400 m 125 to 500 m 250 to 1000 m 0.16 to 0.5

Multi Mode Step Index


Performance characteristics Attenuation
Approx 2.5 to 50 dB/Km @ 0.85 m wavelength 40 dB/Km for glass fiber 5 dB/Km for doped silica fiber 0.4 dB/Km @ 1.3 m wavelength

Bandwidth

6 to 50 M Hz Km

Application

Short haul communication Limited bandwidth applications Relatively low cost applications www.bzupages.com

Multi Mode Graded Index


Made up of glass or doped silica Higher purity level than MMSI fibers Many different structural profiles developed

for different application Structure (Typical)


Core diameter: Clad diameter: Buffer jacket diameter: Numerical Aperture:
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30 to 100 m 100 to 150 m 250 to 1000 m 0.2 to 0.3

Multi Mode Graded Index


Structural types 50 /125 m (core-clad) with NA between 0.20 to 0.24 recommended by ITU-T for telecom applications @ 0.85 and 1.3 m wavelength. Now mainly used for Data Links and LANs 65/124 m (core-clad) with NA between 0.26 to 0.29 for long distance subscriber loops operating @ 0.85 and 1.3 m. Now mainly used for LANs 100/125 m (core-clad)with NA of 0.29. High coupling efficiency with LEDs operating @ 0.85 m. Used in low cost, short distance applications
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Multi Mode Graded Index


Performance characteristics Attenuation
Approx 2 to 10 dB/Km @ 0.85 m wavelength 0.4 dB/Km @ 1.3 m and 0.25dB/Km @1.55 m

Bandwidth

300 to 3 GHz-Km

Application

Medium haul communication Medium to high bandwidth applications

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Single Mode Step Index


Made up of doped silica Small core diameter Structure
Core diameter: Clad diameter: Buffer jacket diameter: Numerical Aperture:

5 to 10 m Generally 125m 250 to 1000 m 0.08 to 0.15 (usually

around 0.1)

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Single Mode Step Index


Performance characteristics Attenuation

Approx 2 to 5dB/Km @ 0.85 m wavelength

Bandwidth

Greater than 500MHzKm Theoretically 40GHzKm @ 0.85 m Practical bandwidth of 10GHzKM @ 1.3 m

Application

Long haul communication Excessive bandwidth applications

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Plastic Clad Fibers


Multimode fibers with both step and graded

profiles Glass core and plastic clad (often silicon rubber) Lower induced radiation losses (improved performance under certain environments) Slightly cheaper Structure SI GI
Core diameter: 100 m Clad diameter:
100 to 500 300 to 800 50 to 125

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Plastic Clad Fibers


Performance Characteristics Step Index: 5 to 50 dB/Km Graded index: 4 to 15 dB/Km

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Optical Fiber Cable


Why we need cabling Unprotected optical fiber has many

disadvantages
Poor strength and stability Brittle and small cross sections are susceptible

to damage during laying

Hence cabling is done to improve Fiber protection

Fiber damage and breakage during installation and throughout life


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Optical Fiber Cable


Cable strength

Should have similar mechanical properties as of electrical cables Increase in resistance to mechanical stress, strain and adverse environmental condition Squeezing and vibrations

Identification of joints Stability

Reduction of micro bending due to environmental conditions specially temperature Reduction in hydrogen absorption and nuclear radiation exposure

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