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ENEL2FTFIELD THEORY
REFERENCES
1. M.N. Sadiku: Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University
Press, 1995, ISBN 0195103688.
2. N.N. Rao: Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Prectice
Hall, 1991, ISBN:0132516047.
3. P. Lorrain, D. Corson: Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, W.H.
Freeman & Co, 1970, ISBN: 0716703300.
4. David T. Thomas: Engineering Electromagnetics, Pergamon
Press, ISBN: 080167780.
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 2
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
Electromagnetics deals with the study of electric and magnetic
fields. Therefore one needs to understand the concepts of a field.
Electric and Magnetic Fields are vector quantities and their
behaviour is governed by a set of laws known as Maxwell’s
equations.
The mathematical formulation of Maxwell’s equations and their
subsequent application require the understanding of the basic rules
pertinent to mathematical manipulations involving vector quantities.
We first introduce simple rules of vector algebra without the
manipulation of the coordinate system; thereafter, we introduce the
Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems.
After introducing the vector algebraic rules, we introduce the
concepts of scalar and vector fields, static as well as timevarying.
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 3
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
In the study of elementary physics, we come across several
quantities such as mass, temperature, velocity, acceleration, force,
and charge.
Some of these quantities have associated with them not only a
magnitude, but also a direction in space whereas others are
characterized by magnitude only.
The former class of quantities are known as vectors, and the latter
class are known as scalars.
Mass, temperature, and charge are scalars, whereas velocity,
acceleration, and force are vectors.
Other examples are voltage and current for scalars , and electric and
magnetic fields for vectors.
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 4
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
Graphically, a vector, A, is represented by a straight line with an arrowhead
pointing in the direction of A and having a length proportional to the
magnitude of A.
If the top of the page represents North, then vectors A and B are directed
eastward, with the magnitude of B being twice that of A.
Vector C is directed towards the northeast and has a magnitude three times
that of A. Vector D is directed towards the southwest, and has a magnitude
equal to that of C. Thus C and D are equal in magnitude but opposite in
phase.
A
B
C
D
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 5
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  THE UNIT VECTOR
Since a vector may have, in general, an arbitrary orientation in three
dimensional space, we need to define a set of three reference
directions at each and every point in space in terms of which we can
describe vectors drawn at that point.
Thus if we define three mutually orthogonal reference directions as
shown below, and direct unit vectors along the three directions as
shown, where a unit vector has magnitude of unity.
i
1
i
2
i
3
Set of three orthogonal unit
vectors in a righthanded
coordinate system.
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 6
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
A vector of magnitude different from unity along any reference
directions can be represented in terms of the unit vector along
that direction.
Thus 4i
1
represents a vector of magnitude 4 units in the direction of i
1
,
6i
2
represents a vector of magnitude 6 units in the direction of i
2
, and
2i
3
represents a vector of magnitude 2 units in the direction opposite
to that of i
3
.
Thus we define vector A as the sum of 4i
1
+6i
2
. That is:
The magnitude of vector A is given by:
2 1
ˆ
6
ˆ
4 i i A + =
211 . 7 6 4
2 2
= + = A
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 7
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
If vector B is defined as:
then the magnitude of B is:
In general, a vector A is said to have components A
1
, A
2
, and A
3
along the directions 1, 2, and 3 is written as:
Now consider three vectors A,B, and C given by:
3 2 1
2
ˆ
6
ˆ
4 i i i B ÷ + =
4833 . 7 2 6 4 2
ˆ
6
ˆ
4
2 2 2
3 2 1
= + + = ÷ + = i i i B
3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ
i A i A i A A + + =
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
i C i C i C C
i B i B i B B
i A i A i A A
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 8
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  Vector Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication
Then the sum of vectors A and B, (A+B), is given by:
Vector subtraction is a special case of vector addition; thus:
The multiplication of a vector, A, by a scalar m, is the same as
repeated addition of the vector:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
2
i B A i B A i B A
i B i B i B i A i A i A B A
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + = +
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
2
i C B i C B i C B
i C i C i C i B i B i B C B
÷ + + ÷ ÷ =
+ + ÷ + + = ÷
( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
i mA i mA i mA
i A i A i A m A m
+ + =
+ + =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 9
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
The magnitude of vector A is given by:
The unit vector along A , i
A
, has a magnitude equal to unity, but its
direction is the same as that of A. Thus:
Two vectors A and B are equal if and only if the corresponding
components of A and B are equal. That is:
2
3
2
2
2
1 3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ
A A A i A i A i A A + + = + + =
3
3
2
2
1
1
i
A
A
i
A
A
i
A
A
A
A
i
A
+ = + =
3 3
;
2 2
;
1 1
;
3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
B A B A B A
i B i B i B i A i A i A B A
= = =
= + + + + ¬ =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 10
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  SCALAR OR DOT PRODUCT
The scalar or dot product of two vectors A and B is a scalar quantity defined
as:
Here o is the angle between A and B. For mutually orthogonal unit vectors i
1
,
i
2
, and i
3
, we have:
Thus we have the dot product between A and B as:


.

\

= ¬ =
÷
B A
B A
B A B A
.
cos cos .
1
o o
1 . ; 0 . ; 0 .
0 . ; 1 . ; 0 .
0 . ; 0 . ; 1 .
3 3 2 3 3
3 2 2 2 2
3 2
1
1
1 1 1 1
= = =
= = =
= = =
i i i i i i
i i i i i i
i i i i i i
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 2 1 1
3 3
.
3 3 2 2
.
3 3 1 1
.
3 3
3 3
.
2 2 2 2
.
2 2 1 1
.
2 2 3 3
.
1 1 2 2
.
1 1 1 1
.
1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
.
ˆ ˆ
.
B A B A B A
i B i A i B i A i B i A
i B i A i B i A i B i A i B i A i B i A i B i A
i B i B i B i A i A i A B A
+ +
+ + +
+ + + + +
=
=
+ + + + =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 11
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  VECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT
The vector or cross product of two vectors, A and B, is a vector quantity
whose magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitudes of A and B
and the sine of the smaller angle o between A and B whose direction is
normal to the plane containing A and B.
For mutually orthogonal unit vectors i
1
, i
2
, and i
3
, we have:
Note that the crossproduct is not commutative, and also the distributive
property holds for the cross product:
N
i B A B x A
ˆ
sino
=
0 ; ;
; 0 ;
; ; 0
3 3 1 2 3 2 3
1 3 2 2 2 3 2
2 3 3 2
1
1
1 1 1 1
= ÷ = =
= = ÷ =
÷ = = =
xi i i xi i i xi i
i xi i xi i i xi i
i xi i i xi i xi i
( )
( ) C x A B x A C B x A
B x A i A B A x B
N
+ = +
÷ = ÷ = o sin
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 12
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  VECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT
Using the above properties, we obtain:
This can be expressed in determinant form in the manner:
The cross product is useful in obtaining the unit vector normal to the
plane containing the two vectors A and B:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 2
1 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 1
3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 3
3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
B A B A B A B A B A B A
i B A i B A i B A i B A i B A i B A
i B i A i B i A i B i A
i B i A i B i A i B i A i B i A i B i A i B i A
i B i B i B x i A i A i A B x A
x x x
x x x x x x
÷ ÷ + =
÷ + + ÷ ÷
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ ÷
=
=
+ + + + =
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
B B B
A A A
i i i
B x A =
B x A
B x A
i
N
=
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 13
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  TRIPLE PRODUCTS
The scalar triple product involves three vectors in a dot product operation
and a cross product operation, such as, A.BxC.
It is not necessary to include parentheses since this quantity can be
evaluated in only one manner  by evaluating BxC first, and then dotting the
resulting vector with A.
We therefore have,
Since the value of the determinant on the right side remains unchanged if the
rows are interchanged in a cylindrical manner, we have
( )
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
.
ˆ ˆ ˆ
.
ˆ ˆ ˆ
.
C C C
B B B
A A A
C x B A
C C C
B B B
i i i
i A i A i A C x B A
= ¬
+ + =
B x A C A x C B C x B A
. . . = =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 14
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA  TRIPLE PRODUCTS
The triple cross product involves three vectors in two cross product
operations.
Caution must however be exercised in evaluating a triple cross
product since the order of evaluation is important; that is:
As an example, let us equate the three vectors to unit vectors as
follows:
Therefore in a vector triple product, the parentheses are so important
and must be included.
( ) ( ) C x B x A C x B x A
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0
ˆ
0
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ
;
ˆ
;
ˆ
2 2 1 1
2 3 1 2 1 1
2 1 1
= = =
÷ = = = ¬
= = =
i x i x i x i C x B x A
i i x i i x i x i C x B x A
i C i B i A
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 15
VECTOR CALCULUS
CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM
So far, we have expressed a vector at a point in space in terms of its
component vectors along a set of three mutually orthogonal directions
defined by three mutually orthogonal unit vectors at that point.
However, in order to relate vectors at one point in space to vectors at
another point in space, we must define the set of three reference
directions at each and every point in space. Thus we need a
coordinate system.
Although there are several different coordinate systems, we are
normally concerned with only three of these, namely, the Cartesian,
cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems.
The Cartesian coordinate system, also known as the rectangular
coordinate system, is the simplest of the three since it permits the
geometry to be simple, yet sufficient to study many of the elements of
engineering electromagnetics.
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 16
VECTOR CALCULUS
CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM
The Cartesian coordinate system is defined by a set of three
mutually orthogonal vectors, x,y, and z, as shown below.
The coordinate axes are denoted as the x, y, and zaxes.
The directions in which values of x, y, and z increase along the
respective coordinate axes are indicated by the arrowheads.
Note that the positive x, y, and zdirections are chosen such that
they form a righthanded system.
i
1
=x
i
2
=y
i
3
=z
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 17
VECTOR CALCULUS
CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM
Therefore we have:
For a righthanded coordinate system, we have:
Consider two points, P
1
(x
1
,y
1
,z
1
), and P
2
(x
2
,y
2
,z
2
) in the rectangular
coordinate system. The position vector, r
1
, drawn from the origin to pint
P
1
and position vector r
2
drawn from the origin to P
2
are given by:
The resultant vector, R
12
, is given by:
z i y i x i ˆ
ˆ
; ˆ
ˆ
; ˆ
ˆ
3 2 1
= = =
y x x z x z x y z y x x ˆ ˆ ˆ ; ˆ ˆ ˆ ; ˆ ˆ ˆ = = =
z z y y x x r
z z y y x x r
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2 2 2
1 1 1
2
1
+ + =
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( )z z z y y y x x x r r R ˆ ˆ ˆ
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12
÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ÷ =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 18
VECTOR CALCULUS
CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM
We can obtain the unit vector along the line drawn from P
1
to P
2
to be:
As an example, if P
1
is (1,2,0) and P
2
is (4,2,5), then:
x
y
z
P
1
(x
1
,y
1
,z
1
)
P
2
(x
2
,y
2
,z
2
)
r
1
r
2
R
12
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )  
2 / 1
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
12
12
12
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ
z z y y x x
z z z y y y x x x
R
R
i
÷ + ÷ + ÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷
= =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 19
VECTOR CALCULUS
CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM
In our study of electromagnetic fields, we have to work with line,
surface, and volume integrals.
These involve differential lengths, surfaces, and volumes obtained by
incrementing the coordinates by infinitesimal amounts.
Since in the Cartesian coordinate system the three coordinates
represent lengths, the differential length elements obtained by
incrementing one coordinate at a time, keeping the other two constant,
are, for the x, y, and zcoordinates respectively:
( ) z y x i
z y x R
ˆ 5 ˆ 4 ˆ 3
2 5
1
ˆ
ˆ 5 ˆ 4 ˆ 3
12
12
+ + =
+ + =
z dz and y dy x dx ˆ , ˆ , ˆ
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 20
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIFFERENTIAL LENGTH VECTOR
The differential length vector, dl, is the vector drawn from a point P(x,y,z)
to a neighboring point Q(x+dx,y+dy,z+dz) obtained by incrementing the
coordinates of P by infinitesimal amounts.
Thus it is the vector sum of the three differential elements as follows:
x
y
z
P(x,y,z)
Q(x+dx,y+dy,z+dz)
r
1
r
2
dl
z dz y dy x dx l d ˆ ˆ ˆ + + =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 21
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIFFERENTIAL LENGTH VECTOR
The differential lengths, dx, dy, and dz are, however, not independent
of each other since in the evaluation of line integrals, the integration
is performed along a specified path on which the points P and Q lie.
As an example, consider the curve
Let us obtain the expression for the differential length vector dl along
the curve at the point (1,1,1) and having the projection dz on the z
axis. Then:
Note that x=1, y=1, z=1.
2
z y x = =
( )dz z y x z dz y dz x dz l d
z dz y dy x dx l d
zdz dy dx
ˆ ˆ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ ˆ 2 ˆ 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2
+ + = + + =
+ + =
= =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 22
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIFFERENTIAL LENGTH VECTOR
Differential length vectors are useful for finding the unit vector normal
to a surface at a point on that surface.
This is done by considering two differential length vectors at the point
under consideration and tangential to the two curves on the surface
then using the crossproduct operation, which gives a vector that is
normal to the crossed vectors.
Thus the unit vector normal to the surface is given by:
dl
1
dl
2
Surface
Curve 1
Curve 2
2 1
2 1
ˆ
l xd l d
l xd l d
i
n
=
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 23
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIFFERENTIAL SURFACE VECTOR
Two differential length vectors, dl
1
and dl
2
originating at a point define
a differential surface whose area dS is that of the parallelogram having
dl
1
and dl
2
as two of its adjacent sides, as shown below:
From simple geometry and the definition of crossproduct of two
vectors, it can be seen that:
dS
dl
1
dl
2
i
n
o
2 1 2 1
sin l xd l d dl dl dS
= = o
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 24
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIFFERENTIAL SURFACE VECTOR
In the evaluation of surface integrals, it is convenient to define a
differential surface vector dS whose magnitude is the area dS and
whose direction is normal to the differential surface.
Thus recognizing that the normal vector can be directed to either side
of the surface, we have:
If we apply these equations to differential surface vectors in Cartesian
coordinates, we obtain:
n
i dS l xd l d S d
ˆ
2 1
± = ± =
z dxdy y xdy x dx t cons z plane For
y dzdx x xdx z dz t cons y plane For
x dydz z xdz y dy t cons x plane For
ˆ ˆ ˆ : tan
ˆ ˆ ˆ : tan
ˆ ˆ ˆ : tan
± = ± =
± = ± =
± = ± =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 25
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIFFERENTIAL VOLUME
Three different length vectors, dl
1
, dl
2
, and dl
3
originating at a point
define a differential volume dv which is that of the parallelepiped having
dl
1
, dl
2
, and dl
3
as three of its contiguous edges, as shown below.
It can be seen that:
dl
1
dl
2
dl
3
dv
3 2 1
2 1 3
2 1
2 1 3
2 1 3 2 1
.
.
.
ˆ
.
) ).( (
l xd l d l d dv
l xd l d l d
l xd l d
l xd l d l d
l xd l d i l d l xd l d
iped parallelep of height iped parallelep of area base dv
n
= ¬
= = =
=
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 26
VECTOR CALCULUS
CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
Just like the Cartesian coordinate system is defined by a set of three
mutually orthogonal surfaces, the cylindrical coordinate system also
involves a set of three mutually orthogonal surfaces.
For the cylindrical coordinate system, the three one of the planes is
z=constant
x
y
z
P(r,,z)

r
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 27
VECTOR CALCULUS
CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
One of these planes is the same as the z=constant plane in the
Cartesian coordinate system.
The second plane contains the zaxis and makes an angle  with a
reference plane, chosen to be the xz plane of the Cartesian coordinate
system. This plane is called the =constant plane.
The cylindrical coordinate system has the zaxis as its axis. But since
the radial distance r from the zaxis to points on the cylindrical surface
is constant, this surface is defined by r=constant.
Thus the three orthogonal surfaces defining the cylindrical coordinate
system are: r=constant; =constant; and z=constant.
Only two of the coordinates (r and z) are distances; the third coordinate
() is an angle.
We note that the entire space is spanned by varying r from 0 to ·; z
from · to +·; and  from 0 to 2t.
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 28
VECTOR CALCULUS
CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
To obtain the expressions for the differential lengths, surfaces, and
volumes in the cylindrical coordinate system, we now consider two
points, P(r,,z) and Q(r+dr, +d, and z+dz) where Q is obtained by
incrementing infinitesimally each coordinate from its value at P.
The three orthogonal surfaces intersecting at P, and the three
orthogonal surfaces intersecting at Q, define a box which can be
considered to be rectangular since dr,d, and dz are infinitesimal.
dz
r
dr

d
x
y
z
P
Q
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 29
VECTOR CALCULUS
CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
The three differential length elements forming the contiguous sides of
the box are:
The differential length vector dl from P to Q is thus given by:
The differential surface vectors defined by the pairs of the differential
length elements are:
Finally, the differential volume dv is the volume of the box:
z dz rd r dr ˆ ,
ˆ
, ˆ  
z dz rd r dr l d ˆ
ˆ
ˆ + + =  
z rdrd xrd r dr
drdz r xdr z dz
r dz rd z xdz rd
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
;
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
; ˆ ˆ
ˆ
  

  
=
=
=
( )( )( ) dz rdrd dz rd dr dv   = =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 30
VECTOR CALCULUS
SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
For the spherical coordinate system, the three mutually orthogonal
surfaces are a sphere, a cone, and a plane.
The three orthogonal surfaces defining the spherical coordinates of a
point are:
r
u

x
y
z
t cons
t cons
t cons r
tan
tan
tan
=
=
=

u
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 31
VECTOR CALCULUS
SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
The differential length elements and the differential length vector dl are
given by:
The differential surface vectors defined by pairs of differential length
elements are:
The differential volume formed by the three differential lengths is:
  u u u
  u u u
ˆ
sin
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
sin ,
ˆ
, ˆ
d r rd r dr l d
d r rd r dr
+ + =
 u u u
u  u   u
 u u   u u u
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
sin ˆ
ˆ
sin
ˆ sin
ˆ
sin
ˆ
2
rdrd xrd r dr
drd r r xdr d r
r d d r d xr rd
=
=
=
( )( )( )  u u  u u d drd r d r rd dr dv sin sin
2
= =
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 32
VECTOR CALCULUS
CONVERSIONS BETWEEN THE COORDINATE SYSTEMS
In the study of electromagnetics, it is useful to be able to convert from
one coordinate system to another, particularly from the Cartesian to the
cylindrical system and viceversa, and from the spherical system to the
Cartesian system and viceversa.
If r
c
is r in cylindrical coordinate, and r
s
is the designation of r in
spherical coordinates, then we have the following conversions:

.

\

=


.

\

+
= + + =
=

.

\

= + =
= = =
= = =
÷ ÷
÷
x
y
z
y x
z y x r
z z
x
y
y x r
r z r y r x
z z r y r x
s
c
s s s
c c
1
2 2
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
tan tan
tan
cos sin sin ; cos sin
; sin ; cos
 u

u  u  u
 
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 33
VECTOR CALCULUS
CONVERSIONS BETWEEN THE COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Next consider the conversion of vectors from one coordinate system to
another.
To do this, we need to express each of the unit vectors of the first
coordinate system in terms of its components along the unit vectors in
the second coordinate system.
From the definition of the dot product of two vectors, the component of
a unit vector along another unit vector, that is, the cosine of the angle
between the two unit vectors, is simply the dot product of the two unit
vectors.
For the sets of unit vectors in the cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate
systems, we have:
1 ˆ . ˆ 0 ˆ . ˆ 0 ˆ . ˆ
0 ˆ .
ˆ
cos ˆ .
ˆ
sin ˆ .
ˆ
0 ˆ . ˆ sin ˆ . ˆ cos ˆ . ˆ
= = =
= = ÷ =
= = =
z z y z x z
z y x
z r y r x r
c c c
    
 
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 34
VECTOR CALCULUS
CONVERSIONS BETWEEN THE COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Similarly, for the set of unit vectors in the spherical and Cartesian
coordinate systems, we obtain the dot products as follows:
Therefore when given a vector in spherical or cylindrical coordinates, it
is possible to convert it into Cartesian coordinates, and viceversa.
This is particularly so when solving electromagnetic radiation problems.
0 ˆ .
ˆ
cos ˆ .
ˆ
sin ˆ .
ˆ
sin ˆ .
ˆ
sin cos ˆ .
ˆ
cos cos ˆ .
ˆ
cos ˆ . ˆ sin sin ˆ . ˆ cos sin ˆ . ˆ
= = ÷ =
÷ = = =
= = =
z y x
z y x
z r y r x r
s s s
    
u u  u u  u u
u  u  u
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 35
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS
For a scalar function, F(t), we have:
Now suppose that F(t) were one component of a vector function, say A
x
.
Since each component would be a new scalar function, it follows that:
Suppose, instead, we asked for the partial derivative of vector A with
respect to x? This asks for the change in A as we move along the x
direction. This becomes:
(
¸
(
¸
A
÷ A +
=
÷ A
t
t F t t F
dt
dF
t
) ( ) (
lim
0
dt
dA
z
dt
dA
y
dt
dA
x
dt
A d
z
y
x
ˆ ˆ ˆ + + =
x
A
z
x
A
y
x
A
x
x
A
z
y
x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
ˆ ˆ ˆ
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 36
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS
The definition of a partial derivative is identical to the definition of an
ordinary derivative:
The only difference is that the function F(x,y) has now two
independent variables, x and y.
Many such functions of two or more independent variables exist. For
example, the height of a point above sea level depends on the position
on the earth and requires two variables, latitudes (x) and longitude (y),
to describe that position.
The partial derivative with respect to y is also defined as:
(
¸
(
¸
A
÷ A +
=
c
c
÷ A
x
y x F y x x F
x
F
x
) , ( ) , (
lim
0
(
¸
(
¸
A
÷ A +
=
c
c
÷ A
y
s F y y x F
y
F
y
) ( ) , (
lim
0
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 37
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES
The partial derivatives of F(x,y) with respect to x and y are both special
cases of a more general derivative, the directional derivative.
Consider the same function, F(x,y), but now instead of partial derivative
with respect to x or y, we compute the derivative in a direction s, as
shown below:
We wish to determine the partial derivative with respect to s:
x
y
s
t
u
(
¸
(
¸
A
÷ A +
=
c
c
÷ A
s
s F s s F
s
F
s
) ( ) (
lim
0
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 38
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES
The variables s,t, are orthogonal and related to x and y by the
equations:
Also recall the chain rule of differentiation from ordinary calculus:
Looking at the coordinate transformations, we find that:
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
t s y
t s x
+ =
÷ =
y
F
s
y
x
F
s
x
s
F
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
u u
u u
sin cos
; sin ; cos
y
F
x
F
s
F
s
y
s
x
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 39
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES  THE GRADIENT
What would be the maximum directional derivative of F(x,y) at the point
(x,y)? This is determined by setting the derivative of the directional
derivative with respect to s equal to zero.
This would be denoted by VF, the gradient of F, given by:
Here the del operator, V, is defined as:
Thus the gradient is a vector operator, with the del operator, V,
operating on a scalar, F(x,y,z).
z
F
z
y
F
y
x
F
x F
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
z
y
y
x
x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V ˆ ˆ ˆ
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 40
VECTOR CALCULUS
THE DIVERGENCE AND CURL OF A VECTOR
Like the dot product of two vectors, the divergence of a vector field is
a scalar function, which, in rectangular coordinates, is given by:
The vector derivative or curl of a vector is defined in rectangular
coordinates as:
z
A
y
A
x
A
A
z
y
x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
.
( )
z y x
z y x
A A A
z y x
z y x
A x
A z A y A x x
z
z
y
y
x
x A x
c
c
c
c
c
c
= V ¬
+ + 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 41
VECTOR CALCULUS
SOME VECTOR IDENTITIES
Some useful vector identities are given below:
1. The Laplacian is defined as:
2. The Curl of the Gradient of a scalar:
3. The divergence of the curl of a vector:
4. The curl of the curl of a vector:
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
.
z
F
y
F
x
F
F F
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V V = V
0 = V V F x
0 . = V V A x
( ) A A A x x
2
. V ÷ V V = V V
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA Electromagnetics deals with the study of electric and magnetic fields. Therefore one needs to understand the concepts of a field. Electric and Magnetic Fields are vector quantities and their behaviour is governed by a set of laws known as Maxwell’s equations. The mathematical formulation of Maxwell’s equations and their subsequent application require the understanding of the basic rules pertinent to mathematical manipulations involving vector quantities. We first introduce simple rules of vector algebra without the manipulation of the coordinate system; thereafter, we introduce the Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems. After introducing the vector algebraic rules, we introduce the concepts of scalar and vector fields, static as well as timevarying.
ENEL2FT Field Theory 2
Vector Calculus
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA In the study of elementary physics, we come across several quantities such as mass, temperature, velocity, acceleration, force, and charge. Some of these quantities have associated with them not only a magnitude, but also a direction in space whereas others are characterized by magnitude only. The former class of quantities are known as vectors, and the latter class are known as scalars. Mass, temperature, and charge are scalars, whereas velocity, acceleration, and force are vectors. Other examples are voltage and current for scalars , and electric and magnetic fields for vectors.
Vector Calculus
ENEL2FT Field Theory
3
VECTOR CALCULUS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
Graphically, a vector, A, is represented by a straight line with an arrowhead pointing in the direction of A and having a length proportional to the magnitude of A. If the top of the page represents North, then vectors A and B are directed eastward, with the magnitude of B being twice that of A. Vector C is directed towards the northeast and has a magnitude three times that of A. Vector D is directed towards the southwest, and has a magnitude equal to that of C. Thus C and D are equal in magnitude but opposite in phase.
A C B
D
Vector Calculus
ENEL2FT Field Theory
4
and direct unit vectors along the three directions as shown. we need to define a set of three reference directions at each and every point in space in terms of which we can describe vectors drawn at that point. i2 i1 Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 5 . where a unit vector has magnitude of unity. Thus if we define three mutually orthogonal reference directions as shown below. in general. an arbitrary orientation in threedimensional space.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA .THE UNIT VECTOR Since a vector may have. i3 Set of three orthogonal unit vectors in a righthanded coordinate system.
Thus 4i1 represents a vector of magnitude 4 units in the direction of i1. Thus we define vector A as the sum of 4i1+6i2.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA A vector of magnitude different from unity along any reference directions can be represented in terms of the unit vector along that direction. and 2i3 represents a vector of magnitude 2 units in the direction opposite to that of i3.211 Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 6 . 6i2 represents a vector of magnitude 6 units in the direction of i2. That is: ˆ ˆ A 4i1 6i2 The magnitude of vector A is given by: A 4 2 6 2 7.
and 3 is written as: ˆ ˆ A A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 Now consider three vectors A.4833 In general.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA If vector B is defined as: ˆ ˆ B 4i1 6i2 2i3 then the magnitude of B is: ˆ ˆ B 4i1 6i2 2i3 4 2 6 2 2 2 7. and C given by: ˆ ˆ A A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 ˆ ˆ B B1i1 B2i2 B3i3 ˆ ˆ C C1i1 C2i2 C3i3 ENEL2FT Field Theory 7 Vector Calculus . a vector A is said to have components A1.B. 2. and A3 along the directions 1. A2.
VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA . Subtraction. thus: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B C B1i1 B2i2 B3i3 C1i1 C2i2 C3i3 ˆ ˆ ˆ B1 C1 i1 B2 C2 i2 B3 C3 i3 The multiplication of a vector.Vector Addition. (A+B). is the same as repeated addition of the vector: ˆ ˆ mA mA1i1 A2i2 A3i3 ˆ ˆ mA1i1 mA2i2 mA3i3 Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 8 . by a scalar m. A. Multiplication Then the sum of vectors A and B. is given by: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A B A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 B1i1 B2i2 B3i3 ˆ ˆ ˆ A1 B1 i1 A2 B2 i2 A3 B3 i3 Vector subtraction is a special case of vector addition.
has a magnitude equal to unity. A3 B3 ENEL2FT Field Theory 9 Vector Calculus . but its direction is the same as that of A. Thus: A A A1 A i1 2 i2 3 i3 iA A A A A Two vectors A and B are equal if and only if the corresponding components of A and B are equal. That is: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A B A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 B1i1 B2i2 B3i3 . A2 B2 . A1 B1 . iA.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA The magnitude of vector A is given by: 2 ˆ ˆ A A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 A12 A2 A32 The unit vector along A .
i2 0. B3i3 A1 B1 A2 B2 A3 B3 Vector Calculus ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A3i3 .i2 0.i1 1. B1i1 A1i1 . For mutually orthogonal unit vectors i1.B A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 B1i1 B2i2 B3i3 . B2i2 A2i2 .i3 0 i3 . B1i1 A3i3 . B3i3 ENEL2FT Field Theory 10 . i3 . i2 .B A B cosa a cos1 AB i1. i1. and i3. i1. B2i2 A1i1 . i2.i3 0 Here a is the angle between A and B. B3i3 A2i2 .SCALAR OR DOT PRODUCT The scalar or dot product of two vectors A and B is a scalar quantity defined as: A. i3 .i2 1. B2i2 A3i3 .B A.i1 0.i1 0. we have: i2 .i3 1 Thus we have the dot product between A and B as: ˆ ˆ ˆ A. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A1i1 . i2 . B1i1 A2i2 .VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA .
and also the distributive property holds for the cross product: BxA B A sin a iN AxB Ax B C AxB AxC Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 11 . A and B. we have: i1 xi1 0. ˆ AxB A B sin aiN For mutually orthogonal unit vectors i1. is a vector quantity whose magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the smaller angle a between A and B whose direction is normal to the plane containing A and B.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA . i3 xi2 i1. i1 xi3 i2 i2 xi1 i3 . i3 xi3 0 Note that the crossproduct is not commutative. i1 xi2 i3 . i2. i2 xi2 0. i2 xi3 i1 i3 xi1 i2 . and i3.VECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT The vector or cross product of two vectors.
VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA . we obtain: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ AxB A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 xB1i1 B2i2 B3i3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A1i1 xB1i1 A1i1 xB2i2 A1i1 xB3i3 A2i2 xB1i1 A2i2 xB2i2 A2i2 xB3i3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A3i3 xB1i1 A3i3 xB2i2 A3i3 xB3i3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A1 B2i3 A1 B3i2 A2 B1i3 A2 B3i1 A3 B1i2 A3 B2i1 A2 B3 A3 B2 A3 B1 A1B3 A1B2 A2 B1 AxB A1 B1 ˆ i1 ˆ i2 ˆ i3 This can be expressed in determinant form in the manner: A2 B2 A3 B3 The cross product is useful in obtaining the unit vector normal to the plane containing the two vectors A B: and AxB iN AxB Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 12 .VECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT Using the above properties.
BxC B. A. such as.BxC. and then dotting the resulting vector with A. B1 B2 C1 C2 A1 A. It is not necessary to include parentheses since this quantity can be evaluated in only one manner .CxA C. We therefore have.BxC A1i1 A2i2 A3i3 .VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA .by evaluating BxC first.BxC B1 ˆ i1 ˆ i2 ˆ i3 B3 C3 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 C2 Since the value of the determinant on the right side remains unchanged if the rows are interchanged in a cylindrical manner. ˆ ˆ ˆ A. AxB ENEL2FT Field Theory Vector Calculus 13 . we have A.TRIPLE PRODUCTS The scalar triple product involves three vectors in a dot product operation and a cross product operation.
C i2 ˆ ˆ A i1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ AxBxC i1 xi1 xi2 i1 xi3 i2 AxB xC iˆ1xiˆ1 xiˆ2 0 xiˆ2 0 Therefore in a vector triple product.TRIPLE PRODUCTS The triple cross product involves three vectors in two cross product operations. that is: AxBxC AxBxC As an example. Caution must however be exercised in evaluating a triple cross product since the order of evaluation is important. the parentheses are so important and must be included. ENEL2FT Field Theory 14 Vector Calculus . let us equate the three vectors to unit vectors as follows: ˆ . B i1 .VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR ALGEBRA .
VECTOR CALCULUS CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM So far. Thus we need a coordinate system. is the simplest of the three since it permits the geometry to be simple. Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 15 . we are normally concerned with only three of these. namely. cylindrical. the Cartesian. in order to relate vectors at one point in space to vectors at another point in space. we must define the set of three reference directions at each and every point in space. Although there are several different coordinate systems. also known as the rectangular coordinate system. However. we have expressed a vector at a point in space in terms of its component vectors along a set of three mutually orthogonal directions defined by three mutually orthogonal unit vectors at that point. and spherical coordinate systems. The Cartesian coordinate system. yet sufficient to study many of the elements of engineering electromagnetics.
The directions in which values of x. and zaxes. and z increase along the respective coordinate axes are indicated by the arrowheads.VECTOR CALCULUS CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM The Cartesian coordinate system is defined by a set of three mutually orthogonal vectors. x. and zdirections are chosen such that they form a righthanded system.y. y. i3=z i2=y i1=x The coordinate axes are denoted as the x. and z. Note that the positive x. as shown below. ENEL2FT Field Theory 16 Vector Calculus . y. y.
we have: xxy z. drawn from the origin to pint P1 and position vector r2 drawn from the origin to P2 are given by: r1 x1 x y1 y z1 z ˆ ˆ ˆ r2 x2 x y2 y z2 z ˆ ˆ ˆ The resultant vector. The position vector.y2.z1). P1(x1. zxx y ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Consider two points.y1. yxz x.z2) in the rectangular coordinate system. and P2 (x2. is given by: R12 r2 r1 x2 x1 x y2 y1 y z 2 z1 z ˆ ˆ ˆ ENEL2FT Field Theory 17 Vector Calculus . r1. i2 y. R12.VECTOR CALCULUS CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM Therefore we have: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ i1 x. i3 z For a righthanded coordinate system.
2.y2.y1.0) and P2 is (4. then: ENEL2FT Field Theory 18 .VECTOR CALCULUS CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM P1(x1.z1) z r1 r2 R12 P2(x2.2. if P1 is (1.z2) y x We can obtain the unit vector along the line drawn from P1 to P2 to be: x2 x1 x y2 y1 y z2 z1 z R ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ i12 12 R12 x x 2 y y 2 z z 2 1 / 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 Vector Calculus As an example.5).
are. dyy. Since in the Cartesian coordinate system the three coordinates represent lengths. for the x. we have to work with line. and zcoordinates respectively: dxx. surface. and volume integrals. surfaces.VECTOR CALCULUS CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM R12 3x 4 y 5 z ˆ ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ 3x 4 y 5 z i12 ˆ ˆ ˆ 5 2 In our study of electromagnetic fields. the differential length elements obtained by incrementing one coordinate at a time. and volumes obtained by incrementing the coordinates by infinitesimal amounts. and dzz ˆ ˆ ˆ Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 19 . y. These involve differential lengths. keeping the other two constant.
z) dl z r1 r2 Q(x+dx.y. Thus it is the vector sum of the three differential elements as follows: dl dxx dyy dzz ˆ ˆ ˆ Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 20 .y+dy. dl.z+dz) y x The differential length vector.y+dy.y.z+dz) obtained by incrementing the coordinates of P by infinitesimal amounts.z) to a neighboring point Q(x+dx.VECTOR CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL LENGTH VECTOR P(x. is the vector drawn from a point P(x.
however.1.VECTOR CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL LENGTH VECTOR The differential lengths. y=1. the integration is performed along a specified path on which the points P and Q lie. consider the curve x y z2 Let us obtain the expression for the differential length vector dl along the curve at the point (1. dx. dy. ENEL2FT Field Theory 21 Vector Calculus . not independent of each other since in the evaluation of line integrals. Then: dx dy 2 zdz dl dxx dyy dzz ˆ ˆ ˆ dl 2dzx 2dzy dzz 2 x 2 y z dz ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Note that x=1. As an example. and dz are.1) and having the projection dz on the z axis. z=1.
dl2 dl1 Curve 1 Curve 2 Surface Thus the unit vector normal to thesurface is given by: ˆ dl1 xdl in 2 dl1 xdl2 ENEL2FT Field Theory 22 Vector Calculus . which gives a vector that is normal to the crossed vectors. This is done by considering two differential length vectors at the point under consideration and tangential to the two curves on the surface then using the crossproduct operation.VECTOR CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL LENGTH VECTOR Differential length vectors are useful for finding the unit vector normal to a surface at a point on that surface.
VECTOR CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL SURFACE VECTOR Two differential length vectors. dl1 and dl2 originating at a point define a differential surface whose area dS is that of the parallelogram having dl1 and dl2 as two of its adjacent sides. it can be seen that: dS dl1dl2 sin a dl1 xdl2 Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 23 . as shown below: in dl2 dS a dl1 From simple geometry and the definition of crossproduct of two vectors.
we obtain: For plane x cons tan t : dyyxdzz dydzx ˆ ˆ ˆ For plane y cons tan t : dzzxdxx dzdxy ˆ ˆ ˆ For plane z cons tan t : dxxxdyy dxdyz ˆ ˆ ˆ Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 24 .VECTOR CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL SURFACE VECTOR In the evaluation of surface integrals. Thus recognizing that the normal vector can be directed to either side of the surface. we have: ˆ dS dl1 xdl2 dSin If we apply these equations to differential surface vectors in Cartesian coordinates. it is convenient to define a differential surface vector dS whose magnitude is the area dS and whose direction is normal to the differential surface.
as shown below. dl1. dl2. dv dl3 dl2 dl1 It can be seen that: dv (base area of parallelep iped ). dl2.dl2 xdl3 ENEL2FT Field Theory 25 Vector Calculus .dl xdl ˆn dl1 xdl2 3 1 2 dl3 .VECTOR CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL VOLUME Three different length vectors.i dl1 xdl2 dv dl1. and dl3 originating at a point define a differential volume dv which is that of the parallelepiped having dl1.dl1 xdl2 dl1 xdl2 dl3 . and dl3 as three of its contiguous edges.(height of parallelep iped ) dl .
the cylindrical coordinate system also involves a set of three mutually orthogonal surfaces. z P(r.f.VECTOR CALCULUS CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM Just like the Cartesian coordinate system is defined by a set of three mutually orthogonal surfaces. the three one of the planes is z=constant ENEL2FT Field Theory 26 Vector Calculus .z) y f x r For the cylindrical coordinate system.
The cylindrical coordinate system has the zaxis as its axis. z from  to +. But since the radial distance r from the zaxis to points on the cylindrical surface is constant. and f from 0 to 2p. The second plane contains the zaxis and makes an angle f with a reference plane. ENEL2FT Field Theory 27 Vector Calculus . f=constant. chosen to be the xz plane of the Cartesian coordinate system. and z=constant. This plane is called the f=constant plane. this surface is defined by r=constant. We note that the entire space is spanned by varying r from 0 to . the third coordinate (f) is an angle.VECTOR CALCULUS CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM One of these planes is the same as the z=constant plane in the Cartesian coordinate system. Thus the three orthogonal surfaces defining the cylindrical coordinate system are: r=constant. Only two of the coordinates (r and z) are distances.
we now consider two points.f. ENEL2FT Field Theory 28 Vector Calculus . f+df.VECTOR CALCULUS CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM z dz Q P y x f df r dr To obtain the expressions for the differential lengths. and volumes in the cylindrical coordinate system. and the three orthogonal surfaces intersecting at Q.df. define a box which can be considered to be rectangular since dr. surfaces. P(r. and z+dz) where Q is obtained by incrementing infinitesimally each coordinate from its value at P. and dz are infinitesimal. The three orthogonal surfaces intersecting at P.z) and Q(r+dr.
rdff . ˆ ˆ dzzxdrr drdzf .VECTOR CALCULUS CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM The three differential length elements forming the contiguous sides of ˆ ˆ ˆ the box are: drr . dzz The differential length vector dl from P to Q is thus given by: ˆ dl drr rdff dzz ˆ ˆ The differential surface vectors defined by the pairs of the differential length elements are: ˆ ˆ rdffxdzz rdfdzr . ˆ ˆ ˆ drrxrdff rdrdfz ˆ ˆ Finally. the differential volume dv is the volume of the box: dv dr rdf dz rdrdfdz Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 29 .
VECTOR CALCULUS SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM For the spherical coordinate system. and a plane. a cone. the three mutually orthogonal surfaces are a sphere. z r q y x f The three orthogonal surfaces defining the spherical coordinates of a point are: r cons tan t q cons tan t f cons tan t Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 30 .
r sin qdff ˆ ˆ dl drr rdqqˆ r sin qdff ˆ The differential surface vectors defined by pairs of differential length elements are: ˆ rdqqˆxr sin qdff r 2 sin qdqdfr ˆ ˆ ˆ r sin qdffxdrr r sin qdrdfqˆ ˆ drrxrdqqˆ rdrdqf ˆ The differential volume formed by the three differential lengths is: dv dr rdq r sinqdf r 2 sinqdrdqdf Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 31 .VECTOR CALCULUS SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM The differential length elements and the differential length vector dl are given by: ˆ ˆ drr . rdqq .
and rs is the designation of r in spherical coordinates. rc x 2 y 2 rs x 2 y 2 z 2 y rc sin f . then we have the following conversions: x rc cosf . zz y rs sin q sin f z rs cosq y f tan 1 zz x 2 2 y 1 x y q tan f tan 1 z x Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 32 . If rc is r in cylindrical coordinate. x rs sin q cosf . and from the spherical system to the Cartesian system and viceversa. it is useful to be able to convert from one coordinate system to another. particularly from the Cartesian to the cylindrical system and viceversa.VECTOR CALCULUS CONVERSIONS BETWEEN THE COORDINATE SYSTEMS In the study of electromagnetics.
y 0 z. y cosf f .z 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ f . is simply the dot product of the two unit vectors. y sin f rc . To do this. the cosine of the angle between the two unit vectors. the component of a unit vector along another unit vector. x 0 z. z 1 ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ENEL2FT Field Theory 33 Vector Calculus .x cosf rc . that is.VECTOR CALCULUS CONVERSIONS BETWEEN THE COORDINATE SYSTEMS Next consider the conversion of vectors from one coordinate system to another. we need to express each of the unit vectors of the first coordinate system in terms of its components along the unit vectors in the second coordinate system. we have: rc .x sin f f . From the definition of the dot product of two vectors. For the sets of unit vectors in the cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems.z 0 z.
and viceversa.x sin q cosf rs . y cosf f .z cosq ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ qˆ.VECTOR CALCULUS CONVERSIONS BETWEEN THE COORDINATE SYSTEMS Similarly. This is particularly so when solving electromagnetic radiation problems.z sin q ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ f . y cosq sin f qˆ.z 0 Therefore when given a vector in spherical or cylindrical coordinates. we obtain the dot products as follows: rs . for the set of unit vectors in the spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems. y sin q sin f rs .x sin f f . Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 34 . it is possible to convert it into Cartesian coordinates.x cosq cosf qˆ.
say Ax. it follows that: dAy dAx dA dA x y z z ˆ ˆ ˆ dt dt dt dt Suppose. Since each component would be a new scalar function. we have: dF F (t t ) F (t ) lim dt t 0 t Now suppose that F(t) were one component of a vector function. F(t). instead.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS For a scalar function. This becomes: Ay Ax A A x y z z ˆ ˆ ˆ x x x x ENEL2FT Field Theory 35 Vector Calculus . we asked for the partial derivative of vector A with respect to x? This asks for the change in A as we move along the x direction.
For example. latitudes (x) and longitude (y). y) F ( x.VECTOR CALCULUS VECTOR DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS The definition of a partial derivative is identical to the definition of an ordinary derivative: F F ( x x. y) lim x x0 x The only difference is that the function F(x.y) has now two independent variables. The partial derivative with respect to y is also defined as: F F ( x. Many such functions of two or more independent variables exist. to describe that position. the height of a point above sea level depends on the position on the earth and requires two variables. y y ) F ( s ) lim y y 0 y Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 36 . x and y.
we compute the derivative in a direction s. Consider the same function.y). as shown below: y t s q x We wish to determine the partial derivative with respect to s: F F ( s s) F ( s) lim s s0 s ENEL2FT Field Theory 37 Vector Calculus . the directional derivative. but now instead of partial derivative with respect to x or y.y) with respect to x and y are both special cases of a more general derivative. F(x.VECTOR CALCULUS DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES The partial derivatives of F(x.
sin q .VECTOR CALCULUS DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES The variables s. are orthogonal and related to x and y by the equations: x s cosq t sin q y s sin q t cosq Also recall the chain rule of differentiation from ordinary calculus: F x F y F s s x s y Looking at the coordinate transformations. we find that: x y cosq . s s F F F cosq sin q s x y Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 38 .t.
.y.z).VECTOR CALCULUS DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES . with the del operator. ENEL2FT Field Theory 39 Vector Calculus .y)? This is determined by setting the derivative of the directional derivative with respect to s equal to zero. This would be denoted by F. F(x.THE GRADIENT What would be the maximum directional derivative of F(x. is defined as: x y z ˆ ˆ ˆ x y z Thus the gradient is a vector operator. . the gradient of F. operating on a scalar. given by: F F F F x y z ˆ ˆ ˆ x y z Here the del operator.y) at the point (x.
the divergence of a vector field is a scalar function. A x y z The vector derivative or curl of a vector is defined in rectangular coordinates as: xA x y z xxAx yAy zAz ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ y z x x ˆ xA x Ax y ˆ y Ay z ˆ z Az Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 40 . which. in rectangular coordinates.VECTOR CALCULUS THE DIVERGENCE AND CURL OF A VECTOR Like the dot product of two vectors. is given by: Ax Ay Az .
The Curl of the Gradient of a scalar: xF 0 3.xA 0 4. The divergence of the curl of a vector: . The Laplacian is defined as: 2F 2F 2F F .F 2 2 2 x y z 2. A A Vector Calculus ENEL2FT Field Theory 41 . The curl of the curl of a vector: 2 2 xxA .VECTOR CALCULUS SOME VECTOR IDENTITIES Some useful vector identities are given below: 1.
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