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CELLS Continued!!!

Structures and Functions

Basic Parts of the Cell
• Plasma membrane – barrier between in and outside of cell • Cytoplasm – everything inside cell
• Cytosol – includes molecules and small particles but not organelles

4. Genetic material 6. Ribosomes

Organelles!
Eukaryotic Cell

Nucleu s

The Nucleus
• Most obvious structure (5μm) • Most eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus • Function:
• Houses and protects genetic information • Controls most functions of cell

4. Structure:
• Nuclear envelope – double membrane layer contains genetic contents; porous – materials enter and exit • Nucleoplasm – jelly like fluid filling

1.Processes: • Cell Division

Normal state - DNA exists as chromatin: long, thin structures

During division - DNA condenses to form chromosomes • Transcription – DNA converted to RNA in the nucleus

Chromatin Cell Division

Chromosome

Mitochond ria

Mitochondria
• Size: 1-10 μm long • Function: • Transfer energy from organic molecules to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – powers most cellular reactions 3. Structure: inner & outer membrane • Outer – separates mitochondria from cytosol • Inner – many folds (cristae) that capture and store energy

1. Processes: • Cellular respiration – formation of ATP by extracting energy from food sources

Ribosome s

Ribosomes
• small, spherical (< 25 nanometers) • Function: • Build proteins • Free ribosomes – make proteins used in cytosol (Ex: enzyme) • Bound ribosomes – make proteins used in membranes, packaging, and elsewhere in body 3. Structure: • Manufactured partly in nucleolus, completed in cytoplasm

Endoplas mic Reticulum

• System of cisternae - membranous tubes & sacs • Function – move molecules from one part of cell to another • Structure
– Rough ER – covered with ribosomes; makes certain proteins and phospholipids
• Secretory proteins – secreted in vesicles (Ex: digestive enzymes) • Membrane proteins – inserted in membranes

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Golgi Apparatus

• System of cisternae stacked up • Function:
a. Manufactures, stores, sorts, ships b. Modify contents of nearby vesicles, give “address label,” transport to other parts of cell

Golgi Apparatus

3. Structure:
– Distinct polarity – membranes on opposite ends have different thickness & molecular composition – Two poles:
• Receiving – near ER •

Vesicles
• Small, spherical shaped sacs • Function:
a. Migrate to and merge with cell membrane b. Release contents outside of cell

3. Structure:
a. Single membrane b. Different types (lysosomes, peroxisomes)

Lysosomes
• Structure – bud from Golgi, contain digestive enzymes • Function – Break down macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids) • Processes:
– Autophagy – Digestion of worn-out organelles – Autolysis – Digestion of damaged or extra cells

Vesicles

Peroxisomes
1. NOT produced in Golgi, contain different enzymes 3. Neutralize oxygen ions 5. Detoxify alcohol and other drugs 7. Break down fatty acids

Vacuole
1. Membrane bound storage structures, contains fluid 3. Types:
– Food – stores nutrients – Contractile – contract, dispose of excess water

Vacuoles

Centriole

Centrioles
1. Animal cells ONLY! 2. Organize cell structure during division 3. 2 short cylinders of microtubules

Part of cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton
• Provides shape and support • 3 structural elements
– Microtubules – hollow tubes made of maintain cell shape, hold organelles in place – Microfilaments - 2 strands intertwined; used in cell movement, muscle contraction, cell division – Intermediate fibers – anchor nucleus and