WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINE & ITS AUXILIARIES

Vishakha Chopra

SPREADING

SPREADING
Spreading is the process of unwinding large rolls of fabric onto long, wide tables in preparation for cutting each piece of a garment, for bulk production. Objective: To place the number of plies of fabric that the production planning process has dictated, to the length of the marker plan, in the colors required, correctly aligned as to length and width, and without tension. Spreading can be done: (i) Mechanically (ii) Manually

PROCESS FLOW OF CUTTING ROOM

REQUIREMENTS OF THE SPREADING PROCESS
1. The spreading of multi-size lays of many plies demands strongly constructed tables, usually with steel legs and braced frames, a heavy, laminated smooth wood/plastic/tempered hardboard top (providing a low level of friction) and sometimes center legs. 2. The table may also bear the weight of a spreading machine, travelling on steel rails at the edge of the table.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE SPREADING PROCESS
3. The spreading table may incorporate a source of compressed air (giving the facility of air flotation through perforations in the table surface), enabling heavy sections of lay to be moved easily along the table surface to the cutting operation. 4. It is also possible to fit tables with a vacuum facility, so that a high lay may be sucked down, compressed, and stabilized before cutting.

Types Of Spreading Machines
• It can be categorized into two categories • •Stationary spreaders: portable and fixed • •Traveling spreaders: semi automatic and automatic • •Stationary spreaders remain in one position on the table during the spreading process • •Traveling spreaders traverse the length of the spread during the spreading process

FABRIC CONTROL DEVICES DURING SPREADING
• Tensioning Mechanisms • Positioning Devices • End Treatment Systems

TENSIONING MECHANISM
Tensioning involves synchronizing the rate of spreading with the rate fabric is unrolled. A positive feed system utilizes a covered roller that is driven and timed to the movement of the machine. It prevents the momentum of a large roll from continuing to unwind when the machine slows down or stops.

POSITIONING DEVICES
Positioning devices control fabric placement during spreading. These devices improve the quality of a spread. Electronic edge sensors monitor selvages as fabric is spread. A deviation from the proposed alignment triggers a motor that shifts the roll to the correct position.

END TREATMENT SYSTEMS
End treatment devices are used with spreaders but are separate and placed at the end of the spread. The specific end treatment equipment needed depends on whether the spreading mode is: • Face-To-Face • Face-One-Way.

END TREATMENT SYSTEMS
A face-to-face spread utilizes an end catcher and folding blade that work together. These are mechanical parts, mounted at opposite ends of the marker to catch and hold the fabric as the blade shapes and creases the fold For Face-One-Way spreads, a knife box is needed along with an end catcher. A knife box contains a cutting unit (usually a small rotary knife) that operates in a track and cuts across the fabric width.

Manual Spreading
• One operator at each side of table. • Fabric package supported on frame. • Operator aligns the plies manually • Ply cut with hand shears, circular knife etc. • Ideal for small-scale production

Fabrics Preferred for Manual Spreading
• • • • • • Knitted fabric Crepe fabric Stretchable fabric (spandex blend) Checks Stripes Regularly repeating pattern etc.

Manual Spreading Frames
Fixed type Eastman Pacemaker

• A very basic fixed size manual spreading machine

• •Light weight machine with a fast pace

Manual Spreading Frames
Expandable Basic Turn Table

• eading machine that is width size adjustable. • •Has manual edge control.

AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINE
Objective: To superimpose layers of fabric in a smooth, tension-free manner for accurate and efficient cutting. It carries the piece of fabric from end to end of the spread, dispensing on ply at a time onto the spread. Basic Elements: • Frame/Carriage • Wheels travelling in guide rails at the edge of the table • Fabric support • Guide collars to aid the correct unrolling of the fabric

AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINES WITH FABRIC CONTROL DEVICES

AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINE
More advanced spreading machines may include: • Motor to drive the carriage • Platform on which the operator rides • Ply-cutting device with automatic-catcher to hold the ends of the ply in place • Ply counter • Alignment shifter (actuated by photo-electric edge guides) • Turntable • Direct drive on fabric support to reduce fabric tension

GENERAL FEATURES OF AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINES
• It gives two way of spreading, One Way and Face To Face. • The starting point, travel length and the number of spreading layers can be manually set. • It gives an automatic non-tension spreading. • It returns back to original position once fabric runs empty. • It can be stopped anywhere upon emergency. • The maximum spreading speed of laying is around 100m/minute.

GENERAL FEATURES OF AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINES
• Maximum fabric width that can be handled is normally 2m (although extra wide machines are capable of handling up to 3m). • Maximum weight of fabric roll that can be carried is 120 kg. • Maximum height of spread cloth is 28cm.

automatic Turntable
The most common has all the features of the automatic rolling rack, may use either catchers or a cut-off knife mechanism, and is self powered. This machine still requires the spreader to manually rotate the fabric turntable rack when spreading F/F modes of spreading. And other is The FULLY automatic turntable spreader is also capable of rotating the fabric as well.

Automatic Rolling Rack
 Has a drive motor and end switches that permit the machine to automatically drive itself from beginning to the end of the table and back.  The spreader then is required to look for damages during spreading and manage the rolls of fabric mounting them and changing them.  These machines may have a ride-on platform for the operator to travel with the machine saving them from walking all day.

DAMAGE CONTROL MARK SENSORS

Newest advances in spreading systems Use of automatic sensors to identify damages in the fabric. Mounted with a sensor that detects the tape as it passes through the electric edge control eye. The sensor stops the spreading machine permitting the spreader to locate the damage and remove it during the spreading process. Very much useful in face to face spreading. Permits higher spreading speeds at the same time.

Semi Automatic Rolling Rack with Electric Eye and Catchers
Designed with electric eye edge Sensors that use a servo motor to shift the rack side to side to align the selvedge on the control side of the table. This saves the spreader time. a mechanical catcher device is used (A ‘mechanized’ cloth weight that automatically lifts and tucks the fabric under it) which is also a time saving device.

FABRIC CUTTING TABLES
• PIN TABLES • AIR FLOATATION TABLE • CONVEYORIZED TABLE

Spreading Table Width
• Maxwidthof material (cm) Max width of table (cm)

• • • • • • • • •

90 100 120 140 160 180 200 210 220

110 120 140 160 180 200 220 230 240

PIN TABLE
• It consists of a slotted aluminum top and needlebars underneath. • Standard table size is 170cm x 404cm. • Height of needle is up to 10cm. • Each needle-bar has pins positioned inside the slots of the table top. • The needle-bars can be moved freely along the length of the table, i.e. they can be positioned exactly according to the matching conditions of the marker.

PIN TABLE
• The height of the pins can be adjusted with the turn of a hand-wheel. So the spreading and pinning is convenient, fast, and avoids tension in the lay package. • Each pin can be individually locked down, i.e. only the needed quantity of pins have to be used. • Each pin has a rounded top, which avoids damages to the fabric.

AIR FLOTATION TABLE
• These are usually made of 12 gauge steel, with a steel/wood end closure. • Legs and cross-braces are a 1-½" deep channel for increased strength. • Center legs are provided for all tables 72" and wider. • The top surface usually consists of extremely durable hardboard panels made of eucalyptus fibers. • The table core is a 50 lb/feet³ density board.\ • The lower edges of tops are beveled to facilitate a precise fit with the frame. • Air plenums are made of ¼" hard plastic and sealed with silicon gel.

AIR FLOTATION TABLE
• The air flotation system consists of air blowers, ducts, hoses and piping precut to size, and all fittings and accessories needed for assembly. • A range of blowers form 2 hp to 5 hp is available to match customer's requirements.

CONVEYORIZED TABLE
• The combination between conveyorized tables and automatic cutter provides the ideal solution for a fast and tension-free movement of the fabric lays from the spreading area to the cutting one.

CONVEYORIZED TABLE
• Being built on the same sturdy construction of the basic spreading table, it has all its features. • Table top is made with a PVC band with a textile internal structure, and is placed over a 3cm MDF plane. • The conveyorized spreading table speed can be synchronized to the cutter or between two conveyor tables mounted on line. • Each section is equipped with a motorization kit. • The automatic or semi-automatic forward or reverse belt progress is activated by a simple control panel.

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