What is Stress?

In medical terms…

Is the disruption of Homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli.

What is Stress

Coined by…
Austro-Canadian endocrinologists HANS SEYLE

Defined the…
General Adaptation Syndrome or GAS paradigm in 1936

Another Definition

Stress = Pressure is more than the Resource


P >


Types of Stress

Richard Lazarus Published in 1974


Where Stress enhances function (physical or mental,such as through strength training or challenging work)


Persistent Stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation may lead to escape (anxiety) or withdrawal (depression) behavior.

Physical Environment

Social Interaction Rudeness Aggressiveness Bossiness Bullying


Pain Bright Lights Confined Spaces Heat

Rules Regulations Red-tape Deadlines

Either positive or negative stressors all can lead to Stress

Either positive or negative stressors all can lead to Stress

Either positive or negative stressors all can lead to Stress

Major Life Events Birth Death Marriage Divorce Lost job


Personality Traits

Smoking Drinking Lack of Sleep

Perfectionists Workaholics Ok lang

Either positive or negative stressors all can lead to Stress

Either positive or negative stressors all can lead to Stress

Either positive or negative stressors all can lead to Stress

Body’s Reaction to Stress



Catecholamine Hormones

Glucocorticoid Hormones

Fight or Flight Response





Autonomic Nervous System

Physical reactions of the Body
Increase heart rate & blood pressure Perspiration Increased pupil dilation Rapid breathing Muscle Tenseness

Liberation of nutrients for muscular action
Inhibition of stomach and intestinal action Increased mental alertness

Adaptation to Stress

Stress Management
Time Management

Anger Management
Self Management

General Adaptation Syndrome

Stage 1: ALARM

This is the “ Fight or Flight” response that prepares the body for immediate action.

Stage 2: Resistance

If the source persists, body prepares long term protection; must include rest periods. May experience fatigue, lethargy and irritability.

Stage 3: Exhaustion

Body unable to maintain homeostasis; problems in immune system occurs; illness will be present.

Symptoms of Stress


Sleep pattern changes Headaches Indigestion Fatigue Lack of Concentration Confusion Disorientation Memory Lapses Appetite changes Increased Intake of alcohol Nail Biting Restlesness Fits of rage Tearfulness Deterioration of Hygiene & Appearance

Emotional Behavioral

Stress Related Illnesses

Digestive Disorders Skin Complications Depression Cardio-Vascular Migraine Headaches and Disorders

Cost of Stress
• 80% of all modern diseases have their origins in stress • In the UK, 40 M worth of working days per year are lost directly from stress - related illness. • Costs in absenteeism to British industry is estimated at £1.5 B pounds per year.

Everyone is different,

with unique perceptions of, and
reactions to, events. There is no single level of stress that is

optimal for all people.
Some are more sensitive owing to experiences in childhood,

the influence of teachers, parents and religion etc.

Most of the stress we experience

is self-generated.
How we perceive life –

whether an event makes us feel threatened or stimulated, encouraged or discouraged,
happy or sad – depends to a large extent on how we perceive ourselves.

Managing Stress

Simple ABC Strategy




Managing Stress

What’s the cause; root of the problem?


Managing Stress

One Strategy is….

Be Proactive

Reactive Behavior
Allow outside influences (moods, feelings or circumstances) to control their responses



Reactive Behavior
either you are the one who is causing the stress

. . . or you are the one being stressed . . .

let us work on avoiding or even eliminating unwanted stress and stressing factors around our work areas . . . be considerate to others.

Proactive Behavior
Use the margin of freedom to make choices that best apply their values. Their freedom to choose expands as they wisely use the space between the stimulus and response.




Victor Frankl - A Jewish Prisoner of WW2
Discovered that the proactive choice of attitude is “the last of the human freedoms.”

“We who lived in concentration camps can remember
the men who walked throughout the huts comforting others, giving away their last piece of bread. They may have been few in numbers, but they offer significant proof that everything can be taken away from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedomsto choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.”

Theories of Determinism
Reactive people blame their attitude and behavior in things they think they cannot control. They respond to stimulus, often attributing their behavior to three determinants.
Genetic Behaviour is determined by heredity or genetic factors Behavior is attributed to the way people were raised and taught in their families Behavior is a product of external forces and circumstances.



Reactive vs. Proactive

• I have to go
• He makes me so mad

• I choose to go
• I control my own feelings • I can…

• There’s nothing I can do • Let’s explore alternatives • If only…

Some thoughts to ponder

“It’s not what people do to us that hurts us. In the most fundamental sense, it is our chosen response to what they do to us that hurts us.” “You can choose your actions, but you cannot choose the Consequences. They are governed by natural laws or principles.”

“Nothing can you make you feel inferior without your consent.”

Concept of Balance

4 Doors of your Life





4 Doors of your Life
Physical Exercise, YOGA, Tai-Chi, Deep Breathing, Stress Balls


Time Management, Problem Solving Skills, Learn New Skills / Tricks / Humor Therapy


Nurture Relationships , Live within your means


Live a Purpose Driven Life

Time Management


Important Urgent


Important Not Urgent

Not Important Urgent

Not Important Not Urgent

Some thoughts on Time Management

“Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things that matter least.”

“What is important to another person must be as important to you as the other person is important to you.”

“The key is not to prioritize your schedule but to schedule your priorities.”

Some thoughts on Emotions

“Relationships are built by action (love, the verb) before emotion (love, the feeling).”

Proactive people define love as a VERB.

LOVE Means Servicing.


Means Sacrificing.


Means Contributing.


Means Listening.


As proactive people they build relationships through loving acts, they feel LOVE (the emotion).

Managing Stress

Be in Charge of your Life


Being In Control
Knowing what you want… Begin with the end in mind…

Mental Creation precedes physical creation

First Creation
The mental thought and plan for the desired results.

Second Creation
The physical production of desired results

Rules to live by….to combat Stress
Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Never trouble another for what you can do yourself. Never spend your money before you have it. Never buy what you don’t want, because it’s cheap; It will be costly to you. Pride costs us more than hunger, thirst and cold.

We have never repented of having eaten too little.

Rules to live by….to combat Stress

• Forget the mistake of the past and press on to the greater achievements of the future. • Wear a cheerful countenance at all times and give every little creature you meet a smile. • Give so much time to the improvement of yourself that you have no time to criticize others. • Be too large for worry, too noble for anger, too strong for fear and too happy to permit troubles.

Thank you for listening….

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