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Alternative Communication Options (Consumer)

Media Advertising (TV, radio, newspapers, magazines) Direct Response Advertising Interactive (on-line) Advertising & Web Sites Outdoor Advertising (billboards, posters, cinema) Point-of-Purchase Advertising Trade Promotions Consumer Promotions Sponsorship of Event Marketing Publicity or Public Relations
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Alternative Communication Options (Business-to-Business)


Media Advertising (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines) Trade Journal Advertising Interactive (on-line) Advertising & Web Sites Directories Direct Mail Brochures & Sales Literature Audio-Visual Presentation Tapes Giveaways Sponsorship or Event Marketing Exhibitions, Trade Shows, Conventions Publicity or Public Relations

Print Ad Evaluation Criteria


Is the message clear at a glance? Is the benefit in the headline? Does the illustration support the headline? Does the first line of the copy support or explain the headline and illustration? Is the ad easy to read and follow? Is the product easily identified? Is the brand or sponsor clearly identified?3

Ad Campaign Considerations
Campaigns make brands -- not single ads Be creative and develop creative themes
Avoid slavishly sticking to executional formulas

Brand communications should sing like a choir


Multiple voices Multiple notes

Find fresh consumer insights & compelling brand truths Productively conduct ad research
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IMC Case Study CMPB Success Factors


Smart strategy
Relative deprivation

Imaginative creative
Funny but relevant

Clever hook
Got milk? slogan

Timely secondary media


In store

Right partners
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Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising


Failure to distinguish ad positioning (what you say) from ad creative (how you say it) Mistaken assumptions about consumer knowledge Improperly positioned Failure to break through the clutter Distracting, overpowering creative in ads
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Under-branded ads Failure to use supporting media Changing campaigns too frequently Substituting ad frequency for ad quality

Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising (cont.)

Audience Communication Option Overlap


Communication Option A Communication Option B

Communication Option C
Note: Circles represent the market segments reached by various communication options. Shaded portions represent areas of overlap in communication options.
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Evaluating IMC Programs


Coverage - what proportion of the target audience is reached by each communication option employed, as well as how much overlap exists among options Cost - what is the per capita expense

Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.)


Contribution - the collective effect on brand equity in terms of
enhancing depth & breadth of awareness

improving strength, favorability, & uniqueness of brand associations

Commonality - the extent to which information conveyed by different communication options share meaning
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Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.)


Complementarity - the extent to which different associations and linkages are emphasized across communication options Versatility - the extent to which information contained in a communication option works with different types of consumers
Different communications history Different market segments
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Keller Bes
Be analytical: Use frameworks of consumer behavior and managerial decision-making to develop wellreasoned communication programs Be curious: Fully understand consumers by using all forms of research and always be thinking of how you can create added value for consumers Be single-minded: Focus message on well-defined target markets (less can be more) Be integrative: reinforce your message through consistency and cuing across all communications

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Keller Bes
Be creative: State your message in a unique fashion; use alternative promotions and media to create favorable, strong, and unique brand associations Be observant: Monitor competition, customers, channel members, and employees through tracking studies Be realistic: Understand the complexities involved in marketing communications Be patient: Take a long-term view of communication effectiveness to build and manage brand equity 13