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Yusniza Muhamed Yusoff

Pensyarah Kanan Biologi B.Sc.Ed (Biology) UM (1996) M.Sc (Med.Ed) USM (2010)

Topics
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM - Components: axial & appendicular skeletal - Anatomy and physiology of bones & joints

BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY - Atom, molecules & compounds - Biological molecules - Movement of substances - Reactions to the cell - Energy & Metabolisme - Protein synthesis - Mitosis & mieosis

Musculoskeletal System Review


Anatomy: Skeletal system Bones (206) Cartilage Tendons Ligaments Joints Muscular system Muscles (more than 600)

Physiology:
Gives the body shape (form/framework) Provides movements Protects internal organs Calcium storage Hematopoiesis Joint articulation

LEARNING OUTCOMES
After studying this topic, students will be able to; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. State the functions of skeletal system List types of bones with example of each Outline the general structure of long bones Differentiate the axial and appendicular skeleton Identify the bones forming the axial and appendicular skeleton List types of joints

6.

BONES
Functions of bones Types of bones Bone structure Microscopic structure of bone

Functions of bones

Framework of the body Attachments to muscle & tendons Allowing movements of the body Forming boundaries of cavities, protecting organs. Haemopoiesis Mineral storage

Types of bones

Long bones consist of shaft & two extremities (eg; femur, tibia, fibula) Short bones (eg; carpals, tarsal, phalanges) Irregular bones (eg; vertebrae, some skull bones) Flat bones (sternum, ribs, most skull bones) Sesamoid bones (patella)

Types of bones

Microscopic structure of bone


Bone cells: - osteoblasts - osteocytes - osteoclast Compact bone Spongy bone

Bone structure

Bone structure

COMPONENTS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM

AXIAL SKELETAL

APENDICULAR SKELETAL

SHOULDER SKULL VERTEBRAL COLUMN THORACIC CAGE


GIRDLE & UPPER LIMB

PELVIC GIRDLE & LOWER LIMB

Axial & Appendicular Skeleton

The Skull

Skull

Cranium
Frontal (1) Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital (1) Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1)

Face
Zygomatic (2) Maxilla (1) Nasal (2) Lacrimal (2) Vomer (1) Palatine (2) Inferior chonchae (2) Mandible (1)

Thoracic cage sternum & ribs

The Spinal Column


Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacrum (1) Coccyx (1)

Shoulder girdle scapula & clavicle

Upper limb

Shoulder girdle

Upper limbs Humerus (2) Radius (2) Ulna (2) Carpal (16) Metacarpal (10) Phalanges (28)

Scapula (2) - Clavicle (2)

Pelvic girdle - pelvis

Lower limb

Femur (2) Tibia (2) Fibula (2) Patella (2) Tarsal (14) Metatarsal (10) Phalanges (28)

Joints
Fibrous joints - Linked with tough material, permits no movement. - eg; between skull bones, tooth & mandible, tibia & fibula.
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Cartilaginous joints Formed by pad of fibrocartilage, acts as shock absorber,immovable or limited degree of movement. Eg; between vertebrae Synovial joints Mostly permit a range of movement, characterised by the presence of a space or capsule between articulating bone. Type : ball and socket, hinge, gliding, pivot, condyloid and saddle joints Eg; shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee, hip, ankle etc.