HUMANITIES IN PRE-CLASSICAL ERA

EUROPE

MONALISA
The Mona Lisa (La Gioconda or La Joconde, or Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo[1]) is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world."]

KOUROS

A kouros (plural kouroi, Anci ent Greek κοῦρος) is the modern term[1] given to those representations of male youths which first appear in theArchaic period in Greece. The term kouros, meaning (male) youth, was first proposed for what were previously thought to be depictions of Apollo by V. I. Leonardos in 1895 in relation to the youth.

across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. The name – or at least its French form.Ramesseum  The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II ("Ramesses the Great". It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt. . also spelled "Ramses" and "Rameses").

. and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.Cycladic  The Cyclades ( /ˈsɪklədiːz/. [cikˈlaðes]) is a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea. The name refers to the islands around (κσκλάς) the sacred island of Delos. Greek: Κσκλάδες. They are one of the island groups which constitute the Aegean archipelago. The Cyclades is where the native Greek breed of cat (the Aegean cat) first came from. south-east of the mainland of Greece.

the daughter in the triad of the Mother Goddess cults or votary figures to attend the maiden goddess. . plural korai) is the name given to a type of ancient Greek sculpture of the Archaic period. There are multiple theories on who they represent.KORE   Kore (Greek: Κόρη — maiden. One theory is that they represent Persephone. and as to whether they represent mortals or deities.

and rarer metals. The creation of life-sized statues began suddenly at about 650 BC. bronze. wood.BLACK FIGURE STYLE   Sculptures in limestone and marble. were used to adorn temples and funerary monuments. both free-standing and in relief.580 BC . 660 BC . terra cotta. The following three periods have been identified:[9] Early Archaic. They mostly had mythical or daily life themes.

POETRY  Alcaeus (Alkaios. Ancient Greek: Ἀλκαῖος) of Mytilene (c. He was an older contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho. with whom he may have exchanged poems. the main city of Lesbos. Ancient Greek lyric poet who supposedly invented the Alcaic verse. 620 – 6th century BC). He was born into the aristocratic governing class of Mytilene. where he was involved in political disputes and feuds. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. .

and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος.HOMER  In the Western classical tradition. Homer ( /ˈhoʊmər/. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature. . Hómēros) is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.

an individual with a distinctive role to play.[6] archaic Greek astronomy and ancient time-keeping.[5] Modern scholars refer to him as a major source on Greek mythology.HESIOD  Hesiod ( /ˈhiːsiəd/ or /ˈhɛsiəd/.[4] Ancient authors credited him and Homer with establishing Greek religious customs. farming techniques.[2][3] His is the first European poetry in which the poet regards himself as a topic. Hēsíodos) was a Greek oral poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC. around the same time as Homer. . early economic thought (he is sometimes identified as the first economist).[1] Ancient Greek: Ἡζίοδος.

PAINTINGS  Aglaophon (Gr. around the late 6th or early 5th century BC.[1] He was the father and instructor of Polygnotus. as worthy of admiration on other grounds besides their antiquity .[5] Aglaophon probably lived around the 70th Olympiad. born on the island of Thasos.[2][3] He had another son named Aristophon.[6] which were distinguished by the simplicity of their coloring. that is. Quintilian praises his paintings. Ἀγλαοφῶν) was an ancient Greek painter.[4] As Polygnotus flourished before the 90th Olympiad.

. A pupil of Raphael. contemporary prints of them engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi were a significant contribution to the spread of 16th-century Italian style throughout Europe. Giulio's drawings have long been treasured by collectors.GIULIO ROMANO  Giulio Romano (c. his stylistic deviations from high Renaissance classicism help define the 16th-century style known as Mannerism. 1499 – 1 November 1546) was an Italian painter and architect.

Teracota soldier  Prehistoric artwork such as painted pottery in Neolithic China can be traced back to the Yangshao culture and Longshan culture of the Yellow River valley. but also for religious ritual and geomancy. Chinese of the ancient Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty produced multitudes of artistic bronzeware vessels for practical purposes. . The earliest (surviving) Chinese paintings date to the Warring States period. mostly on the lacquer ware items. while the earliest surviving paintings on silk date to the Han Dynasty (example: the intricate silk paintings found at the tombs of Mawangdui). During China's Bronze Age.

[2] The word Buddha is a title for the first awakened being in an era." [note 1] Gautama Buddha may also be referred to as Śākyamuni "Sage of the Śākyas").Gautama buddha  Gautama Buddha or Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent. In most Buddhist traditions. Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme Buddha of our age. The Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in the Sramana religions. on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.[3] . "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one.

and was found over the face of a body located in a burial shaft (grave V). . as tradition regards it).The mask of Agamemnon  The Mask of Agamemnon is an artifact discovered at Mycenae in 1876 by Heinrich Schliemann. but modern archaeological research suggests that the mask is from 1550– 1500 BC (earlier than the life of Agamemnon[citation needed]. Schliemann believed that he had discovered the body of the legendary Greek leader Agamemnon. The artifact is a funeral mask hewn in gold. The mask is currently displayed in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

Mayan temple  The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization. as well as for its art. and continued throughout the PostClassic period until the arrival of the Spanish. 250 to 900 AD). architecture. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD). . according to the Mesoamerican chronology. and mathematical and astronomical systems. many Maya cities reached their highest state of development during the Classic period (c. noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas.

30. if you prefer. 400 A.D.Unknown art  This timeline covers ca. Prehistory.C. Western Ancient and Classical civilizations. or. .000 B. to ca. and even your early Chinese dynasties and periods all have their dates listed here. fertility statuettes and bone flutes to roughly the Fall of Rome.

Maya’s art  The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization. architecture. . noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas. it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world. At its peak. 250 AD to 900 AD). Initially established during the Preclassic period (c. as well as its art. many Mayan cities reached their highest state development during the Classic period (c. and continued throughout the Postclassic period until the arrival of the Spanish. and mathematical and astronomical systems. 2000 BC to 250 AD).

wearing a collar of the cacoa’s pods. Sitting upon a now-lost jar. . This whimsical lid probably depicts a spider monkey. the monkey jealously guarded the precious cacao seeds that the vessel would have held.Maya civilization  Ceramic lid of jar with monkey and cacao pods. a cacao lover.

Anne and John the Baptist   The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St. her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus. Anne.Virgin and Child with St. The painting was commissioned as the high altarpiece for the Church of Santissima Annunziata in Florence and its theme had long preoccupied Leonardo. Contents . Christ is shown grappling with a sacrificial lamb symbolizing his Passion as the Virgin tries to restrain him.

27 percent lignin. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First dynasty). mats. papyrus is composed of 57 percent cellulose. and seven percent water. sandals. rope. Ancient Egypt used this plant as a writing material and for boats. mattresses.[2] . Chemically.[1] a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. nine percent minerals.papyrus  Papyrus ( /pəˈpaɪrəs/) is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant. Cyperus papyrus. but it was also used throughout the Mediterranean region. and baskets.

This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture in the world. Later. as Hinduism. Buddhism and Jainism developed further. some in huge shrines. as well as unrivaled temple carvings. India produced some of the most intricate bronzes in the world. . such as the one at Ellora. where stone and bronze carvings have been discovered.Indian art  The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization.

The God head fires  Pre Raphaelite Art .

Ancient egyptian oil painting  A pharoh .

Ancient archetecture  A feminine sculpture similar to "Venus" figures found from Siberia to the Pyrenees .

Engraving  Engraving in acient egypt .

between 100 BC and 700 CE A stirrup spout vessel (so called because of its resemblance to a stirrup) is a type of ceramic vessel common among several PreColumbian cultures of South America beginning in the early 2nd millennium BCE.Stirrup spout vessel   Jump to: navigation. search A Moche stirrup spouted vessel.[1] .

From the Tibesti massif to the Ahaggar Mountains. There are over three thousand sites discovered that have information about Saharan rock art. . the Sahara is an impressive open-air museum containing numerous archaeological sites.Saharan rock art  Saharan rock art is a significant area of archaeological study focusing on the precious treasures carved or painted on the natural rocks found in the central Sahara desert.

Jomon statue  The term jōmon means "cord-patterned" in Japanese. . This refers to the pottery style characteristic of the Jōmon culture. and which has markings made using sticks with cords wrapped around them.

The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro". Built around 2600 BC. it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. is an archeological site situated in the province of Sindh. Pakistan. Mesopotamia. existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt. Indus Valley civilization  Mohenjo-daro lit. and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements. and Crete . Mound of the Dead).

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