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Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland

Demonstration Panel
October 12, 2007

Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland

Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland

Pervious Pavement Section

Underdrains

Inlet Detail

Observation Wells

Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland

Work In Progress

Specifications and Testing for Pervious Concrete


Rod Meyers, P.E., CDT, BASF Matt Cockerham, North Star

Specifications and Testing for Pervious Concrete


Desired Plastic Properties Desired In Place Properties Common Specification Provisions

Desired Plastic Properties Batching Consistency


ASTM C 143, Slump Test, does not apply
Too little water

Proper Amount of Water

Too much water

(1) Tennis, P.D., Leming, M.L., Akers, D.J., Pervious Concrete Pavements, Portland Cement Association, PCA Serial No. 2828, 2004, page 8

Desired Plastic Properties Stable Paste


Improves permeability Improves abrasion resistance Improves cold weather durability
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5

Void content, % by vol.

Best Fit Equation Data 10 15 20 25 30 35

Paste content, percent by volume

Desired Plastic Properties Workability


Maintains w/cm Permits timely unloading, placement, finishing, and curing

Desired In Place Properties Percolation


3 to 5 gal/ft2/min = 288 in./hr to 480 in./hr = 4.8 in./min to 3.2 in/min

Desired In Place Properties Percolation


ASTM developing test method to measure percolation Constant head method

Percolation as a Function of Void Content


Percolation, in/min
100 80 60 40 20 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Best Fit Line Data

Void Content, percent by volume

Figure A7.5.1, ACI 211.3, M inimum void content for percolation based on NAA-NRMCA tests and test methods
Percolation, in/min = 5.684*10
-7

*(void content,%)

5.3034

Measuring Voids Testing Fresh Density


Sample in accordance with ASTM C 172 Sample every 100 cubic yards Within +/- 5 lb/ft3 of specified density

Testing Fresh Density


ASTM C1688 Density and Void Content of Freshly Mixed Pervious Concrete
0.25 ft3 measure (standard air pot) Standard Proctor Hammer Fill in two lifts Drop hammer 20 times/lift

Testing Fresh Density Alternate Methods


ASTM C29 Jigging Procedure ASTM C138 Rodding Procedure Filling an empty unit weight bucket

Testing Fresh Density Comparing Methods


6 Standard Deviation 5 4 3 2 1 0

Proctor - 20 Blows

C 29 Jigging

C 138 Rodding

Usable Voids vrs. Gravimetric Voids Effective Porosity vrs. Total Voids
Usable Voids, % = 0.898 * (Gravimetric Voids, %) 3.1

Usable Voids vrs. Gravimetric Voids


Gravimetric Voids % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Usable Voids % 5.9 10.4 14.9 19.3 23.8 Gravimetric Voids /Usable Voids % 58.8 69.1 74.3 77.4 79.4

A 4 inch thick pervious pavement with 15% usable (effective) voids will store 0.60 inches of rainwater (4 * 0.15 = 0.60)

Desired In Place Properties Mechanical Strength


Rigid Pavement Flexural Strength

Compressive Strength vrs. Void Content


28-day Compressive Strength, psi
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5

28-day Compressive Strength, psi

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5

Best Fit Line Data

Best Fit Line Data 10 15 20 25 30 35

10

15

20

25

30

35

Void Content, percent by volume

Void Content, percent by volume

No. 8 Coarse Aggregate No. 67 Coarse Aggregate Figure A7.5.2, ACI 211.3, Relationship between void content and 28-day compressive strengths for No. 8 and No. 67 coarse aggregates

No. 8 Coarse Aggregate fc = 6,526 - 193.7 * (void content, %) No. 67 Coarse Aggregate fc = 5,657 - 170.7 * (void content, %)

psi
psi

Flexural Strength vrs. Void Content


28-day Flexural Strength, psi 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
0 5 10 15 20

Best Fit Line Data

25

30

35

Void Content, percent by volume

Flexural Strength, Fmr = 832.8 20.3 * (void content, %), psi

Pavement Serviceability AASHTO Road Test Relationship between serviceability and load repetitions

Designing Pavements to Account for Fatigue

Estimating Flexural Stress

ACI 330 Guide for The Design and Construction of Concrete Parking Lots

Desired In Place Properties Abrasion Resistance


Strong, dense surface Good curing

Desired In Place Properties Cold Weather Durability


Freezethaw Durability Frost Heave

Frost Heave
Frost Penetration Depth in MD = 30 FAA recommends 65% of the frost depth contain non-frost-susceptible material For 30 FPD, depth of pervious material (concrete plus base) shall be 20 inches

Cold Weather Durability

ASTM C 666 testing has indicated


low durability

Field service says otherwise

Mix Design Development for Pervious Concrete in Cold Weather


Sponsored by: Iowa Department of Transportation National Concrete Technology Pavement Technology Center Iowa Concrete Paving Association

Conclusions
Failure due to freeze-thaw cycles are the result of aggregate deterioration or cement paste matrix failure Sand, latex and air entrainment admixture improved freeze-thaw durability

The Effect of Coarse Aggregate on the Freeze-Thaw Durability of Pervious Concrete


John T Kevern, University of Missouri-Kansas City Kejin Wang, Iowa State University Vernon R Schaefer, Iowa State University

Conclusion and Recommendations


Aggregate absorption has the greatest effect on freeze-thaw durability

Review of Maryland Aggregates

Suggested Methods to Improve Cold Weather Durability Use 8 to 24 of Open Graded Base
Use Sound Aggregates Use Air Entraining Admixture Use 5 to 10% Fine Aggregate Place perforated PVC pipe in base to capture and remove water

Specifications Common Provisions

Contractor Qualifications Options On Site


1 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Craftsman 3 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Installers 5 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Technicians

Pre-paving Conference
Within two weeks of first placement In attendance: Owners Representative Contractor Concrete Supplier Concrete Foreman Testing Agency

Test Panel
Minimum 225 ft2 Use proposed mix design and materials Use proposed placement equipment Include at least one typical joint

Test Panel
Fresh density: with +/- 5.0 lb/ft3 Three cores: average thickness not more than less or 1.5 more than specified thickness Single core: not more than less than specified thickness

Testing Thickness
Average of three cores more than 1-1/2 greater than specified thickness No single core more than less than specified thickness

Testing Thickness
Three cores per 5,000 ft2 Average of three cores not more than less than specified thickness

Testing In Place Density


Three cores per 5,000 ft2 Minimum nominal diameter of 4 inches Measure density in accordance with ASTM C140 Hardened density shall be within +/- 5% of approved hardened density from test panels

Subgrade Preparation
Maintain final subgrade elevation Permeability testing: Portland Cement Association recommends: Soils with a percolation rates of in/hr. ASTM D 3385, Double-ring Infiltrometer testing Subgrade support: minimum density of 92% maximum dry density Subgrade in moist condition within 3% of optimum moisture content

Base Materials
Open graded aggregate 30% to 40% void content Elevation of base shall be maintained during placement of concrete.

Concrete Materials
Comply with ASTM C 94 Aggregates Max. size 1/3 thickness Aggregates Use 3/8 maximum size Admixtures for controlling hydration may be used and facilitate handling of plastic concrete

Isolation Joint Materials


ASTM D994, D1751, D1752

Curing Material
Clear 6 mil or thicker polyethylene Not acceptable: Woven materials, such as burlap and geotextile fabric Wax-based curing compounds

Forms
Height equal to the thickness of the pavement Held in place by stakes and braced to prohibit movement from pressure of concrete and thrust of machinery

Setting Formwork
Utilize form release agent May use previously placed pavement Limit placement width to 20 feet

Batching and Mixing


Comply with ASTM C 94 Discharge completed within 60 minutes of introduction of water to cement.

Placing and Finishing


Deposit concrete on prewetted material Spread using comealong, squareended tools, rakes. Water may be added to obtain required consistency. Minimum 30 mixer revolutions.

Placing and Finishing


Strike off with vibrating screed.

Placing and Finishing


Strike off with paving machine

Placing and Finishing


Compactive effort: 10 psi, minimum Do not use steel trowels, power finishing equipment

Final Surface Texture


Cross-roll to compact concrete to dense, pervious surface

Final Surface Texture


Compact slab edges with hand tools Compact concrete to dense, pervious surface Edging radius of not less than 1/4

Tolerances
Elevation: +3/4, -0 Thickness: + 1-1/2 , - Contraction joint depth: +1/4, - 0

Contraction Joints
Joints as shown on plans or as approved to 1/3 pavement thickness Early-entry dry-cut saw: 1 minimum

Contraction Joints
Spacing not exceed 20 feet Aspect ratio: 125% maximum

Contraction Joints
Angle at intersections: 80o to 100o Intersect free edges at 90o, 1.5 lap

Contraction Joints
Align with curb joints within

Curing
Begin curing with 20 minutes of concrete discharge Cover surface with 6 mil minimum polyethylene Cover exposed edges Cure for uninterrupted 7 days minimum

Good References
ACI 522.1-08 Specification for Pervious Concrete Pavement County of Fairfax, Letter 08-01 Ohio Ready Mixed Concrete Association Carolinas Ready Mixed Concrete Association Tennessee Ready Mixed Concrete Association Georgia Concrete Promotion Association

Thank you