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•Lymph vessels contain transudate formed from capillaries – Lymph •Lymph contain fluid plasma, few granulocytes, Lymphocytes. •Red blood cells and platelets are not present.
Relationship of lymph capillaries to tissue and blood capillaries Blood capillary Venule Arteriole
Basic structure of lymphatic tissue• framework of reticulin fibres • reticular cells • Infiltrated with lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells in some. • Lymphatic tissues are classified according to how they present in the body.
Non-encapsulated – • Diffuse Lymphatic tissue • Solitary lymphoid nodules (follicles) • Aggregated lymphoid follicles Encapsulated – • Lymph node • Thymus • Spleen All lymphocytes originate in the bone marrow. T lymphocytes mature further in the thymus. B lymphocytes leave the bone marrow as mature cells.
Bone marrow and thymus are - primary or central lymphoid organs.
Lymphocytes migrate from these organs to the blood and peripheral lymphoid organs such as spleen, lymph nodes, solitary nodules, and aggregated nodules. •Diffuse type – uniformly distributed lymphocytes under the wet epithelia of respiratory and alimentary tracts. This area of lymphocytes is not sharply demarcated.
•Solitary lymph nodules –primary nodules secondary nodules. • Seen under wet epithelia, in the lamina propria
Non capsulated spherical mass of densely
packed lymphocytes. •Secondary follicles are with germinal centres. •It is an area of active proliferation of lymphocytes. • appear only after birth •in the lymph nodule and around- B lymphocytes •Area between nodules- T lymphocytes
Aggregated lymph nodules (follicles)
Tonsil Peyer’s patches Appendix At the oro-pharyngeal isthmus – palatine tonsil lingual tonsil pharyngeal tonsil They form a circle of lymphatic tissueWaldeyer’s ring
• Aggregated lymphoid follicles are covered by an epithelium. • Palatine tonsil• located between two pillars of fauces. • semi capsulated • primary crypts – epithelium dips into the tonsil. • secondary crypts- lateral extension of the crypts. **Lingual tonsil – smaller and more numerous located at the base of the tongue crypts are broad and shallow.
Pharyngeal tonsil – • single tonsil • upper posterior part of the pharynx. • covered by pseudo stratified columnar ciliated epithelium. Appendix – collection of lymphoid follicles under simple columnar epithelium
Peyer’s patches – • In the lamina propria of the ileum on the antimesenteric border.
Lymph node• encapsulated bean shaped organs. • distributed throughout the body along lymph vessels. • found in axilla ,groin, along great vessels, thorax, abdomen. • convex surface, concave depression -hilum • arteries and nerves enter and veins and efferent lymph vessels leave at the hilum. • thick connective tissue capsule and trabeculae. • system of lymph sinuses.
• Each lymph node contains -outer cortex inner cortex medulla lymph sinuses Net work of reticular fibres
Outer cortex – • reticular cells and fibres • lymphocytes in follicles – primary or secondary follicles. • germinal centres in secondary follicles have stem cells, lymphoblasts and macrophages. • is a site of active B lymphocyte production •peripheral area of the follicle – B lymphocytes
Inner cortex – paracortex- few or none follicles
• T lymphocytes are present. • they generally not present as follicles.
• medullary cords – branched extensions of inner cortex which contain B lymphocytes and some plasma cells. • medullary sinuses containing lymph.
Section of a lymph node
Lymph sinuses• endothelial lined lymph spaces • contain net work of reticulin fibres to slow the flow of lymph. • afferent lymph vessels enter the sinus beneath the capsule - Subcapsular sinus • along trabeculae – trabecular (cortical) sinuses • in the paracortex - paracortical sinuses • in the medulla - Medullary sinuses • efferent
M-Macrophages E- margin of sinus
• Lymphocytes leave the lymph nodes by efferents and enter the blood circulation • All lymph formed in the body drains back into blood. • Lymphocytes return to the lymph nodes by leaving the blood through specific blood vessels Post capillary or high endothelial venules. • These venules have an unusual endothelial lining of tall cuboidal cells. • Lymphocytes are capable of traveling between these cells.
• They are present in other lymphoid organs such as appendix, peyer’s patches, and tonsils but not in the spleen. • Read • the circulation of lymph • Functions of lymph node • Recirculation of lymphocytes
Spleen- is the largest accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the body. • Situated in left hypochondrium in relation to 9th 10th 11th ribs posteriorly. • Is an important organ of defence against microorganisms. • Is a site of destruction of erythrocytes. • Is a site of production of activated lymphocytes. • Is an important immunologic blood filter. • Is an antibody forming organ.
Spleen –related structures
Oesophagus ( cut)
Inferior mesenteric vein
Tail of Pancreas Left Kidney Colon
• Connective tissue septa or trabecualae divide the paranchyma- splenic pulp in to incomplete compartments. • Hilum on the medial surface contain number of trabeculae which carry nerves and blood vessels. • Veins derived from paranchyma, lymph vessels originate in the trabeculae.
• No lymphatic vessels in the paranchyma.
Splenic pulp – red pulp white pulp Red pulp - splenic cords and sinusoids • Loose network of reticular cells. • Reticular fibres. • Macrophages • B and T lymphocytes • Plasma cells • Many blood cells – granulocytes platelets erythrocytes
Structure of the spleen
Section of Spleen
White pulp- Periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS) Lymphatic nodules Lymphocytes surrounding the central arteryT lymphocytes Lymphocytes in the nodule – B lymphocytes Marginal zone – marginal sinuses - large number of antigens
Trabecular arteries enters the paranchyma Central arteries/ white pulp arteries
Surrounded by sheath of lymphocytes PALS Open
Radial arteries Along the course number of nodules Outside white pulp Penicillar arteries Ellipsoid arteries near the termination
Capillaries Beyond ellipsoid
Thymus •Lympho -epithelial organ situated in the mediastinum. Two types of cells- epithelial reticular cells derived from endoderm of third pharyngeal arch. Lymphocytes derived from stem cells of bone marrow •Large at birth and increases rapidly upto two years. •Less rapidly upto about puberty. •Has two lobes.
Common carotid artery
Vagus Nerve Internal jugular vein Subclavian artery Subclavian vein Thymus Right Lung Heart Left Lung Diaphragm Thyroid
• Trabeculae divide the gland into incomplete irregular lobules. • Cortex – 1. extensive population of T lymphocytes 2. dispersed epithelial reticular cells
3. few macrophages are seen near the
capsule, perivascular region, and cortico-medullary region
Section of Thymus
Thymic Cortex Capsule
BM-Basement membrane of epithelial cell
C- Capsule Cx - Cortex M-Medulla
• lymphocytes are not numerous • pink in H&E due to eosinophilic cytoplasm of epithelial-reticular cells • thymic or Hassall’s corpuscles- degenerating epithelial reticular cells.
Epithelial -reticular cells • Form a frame work of irregular interconnected sheets. • Continous sheet deep to the capsule, against trabeculae and around blood vessels. • Forms a mesh work in the medulla. • They are large, irregular eosinophilic cells with large nuclei. • Forms a component of the haemo-thymic barrier which prevents certain substances entering the thymus to keep the thymus free of antigens..
Components of the haemo-thymic barrier. • Endothelium of the capillary • Basement membrane • Connective tissue • Basement membrane of epithelial reticular cells • Epithelial reticular cells. Functions • Differentiation of T lymphocytes into immunologically competent T- Lymphocytes. • Maintenance of T lymphocytes in the circulation.
• Essential for the normal development of lymphatic tissue. • Control of lymphopoiesis • Hormone thymosine controls lymphocyte production. • Cells are educated to differentiate “self” from “nonself”.
• Read the blood supply of the thymus
Objectives Lymphatic Tissues
• List the cells that are found in the lymphatic tissues. • List the precursor cells of the different types of cells mentioned above. • Classify lymphatic tissues. • State the general distribution of lymph nodes in the body. • Explain the term “Peyer’s patch”. • State the mechanism of filtration of lymph in the Lymph node, Spleen and the Thymus.