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I
S

I
S

S

What is Voltage Drop

Source

I
R
S
p.f. = 1
VD = IR = (mV/A/m)r
Source
I
R
S
p.f. = Cos 
VD = IR Cos  == Cos(mV/A/m)r
Source
I
R
X
S
p.f. = Cos 

Voltage Drop Vs Distribution Arrangement

N
N
N
N
• SUB- RING

DISTRIBUTION

RISER

DISTRIBUTION

ARRANGEMENT

170 %

• 0.39 %

• 0.28 %

Installation Cost

100 %

• 0.92 %

210 %

180 %)

Min. V.D.

• 0.23 %

• 0.47 %

• 0.18 %

• 0.13 %

• 0.11 %

Max. V.D.

Distance = 100m

DISTRIBUTION

MEANS

PVC
CABLE
XLPE
FR
Cu BUSBAR
A1.
BUSBAR

Installation Cost

V.D.%

0.73%
0.73 %
0.07%
0.12%
100 %
120 %
130 %
210 %
180%
0.52 %

4%
6%

10%
1.0%
1.0%
2.5%
3%
Final Circuit
Voltage Drop
3.0%
4%
3.0%
1.5%
1%
Sub-Main
Voltage Drop
6%
Supply Utilities
Voltage
Regulation
6%
6%
6%
6%
6%
Lift/Escalator
Lighting Small
Power
ACMV
Fire Pump
MCC

3%
3%
M
2%
S B
N

3%
3%
M
2%
S B
1%
N

Voltage Drop at Steady State / Transient Condition

3%
3%
3%
3%
M
M
5%
6%
4%
6%
2%
2%
S B
S B
3%
4%
1%
1%
2%
2%
N
N
Voltage Drop with Consideration of Cable Reactance
2.5%
0.3%
1.2%
1.6%
2.5%
2.5%
2.2%
1.3%
0.9%
6mm 2
16mm 2
25mm 2
240mm 2
500mm 2

T 20A

R
design

V.D.

=

t ambient

+

I 2 design

I 2 table

(t70 o C t reference )

=

25

20 2

+

• 2 (70 30)

59

= 29.6 o C

Voltage Drop with Temperature Correction

The Corrected TV.D at 29.6 o C is:

(TVD r ) 29.6oC

VD

 = (TVD r ) 230 + 29.6 230 + 70 = 3.8 x 0.86 = 3.27 = (TVD r Cos  ) x I x L 1000 = 3.27 x 0.8 x 20 x 30 1000 = 1.57 V = 69% of (VD/A/m)r only