You are on page 1of 16

What is Voltage Drop

Source

I S
I
S

R

What is Voltage Drop Source I S R Load p.f. = 1 VD = IR =
 

Load

 

p.f. = 1

What is Voltage Drop Source I S R Load p.f. = 1 VD = IR =

VD = IR = (mV/A/m)r

What is Voltage Drop

Source

I S
I
S

R

What is Voltage Drop Source I S R Load VD = IR = (mV/A/m) r p.f.
Load
Load
What is Voltage Drop Source I S R Load VD = IR = (mV/A/m) r p.f.

VD = IR = (mV/A/m)r

p.f. = 1

Source

  • I R

S Load
S
Load
What is Voltage Drop Source I S R Load VD = IR = (mV/A/m) r p.f.

VD = IR Cos == Cos(mV/A/m)r

p.f. = Cos

What is Voltage Drop

Source

I R S Load p.f. = 1 VD = IR = (mV/A/m)r Source I R S
I
R
S
Load
p.f. = 1
VD = IR = (mV/A/m)r
Source
I
R
S
Load
p.f. = Cos 
VD = IR Cos  == Cos(mV/A/m)r
Source
I
R
X
S
Load
p.f. = Cos 
What is Voltage Drop Source I R S Load p.f. = 1 VD = IR =

VD = IR Cos + I X Sin ==Cos(mV/A/m)r + Sin(mV/A/m)x

Why Need to Control Voltage Drop

  • 1. Meet the relevant Code (CP5: 525-01-02)

  • 2. Maintain Proper Operation (CP5: 525-01-01)

  • 3. Operate Best Efficiency

  • 4. Safety Operation

  • 5. Optimize Life Span

  • 6. Reduce Energy Loss

  • 7. Reduce Heat

Ways to Minimize Voltage Drop

  • 1. Reduce Route Length

  • 2. Bigger Cable

  • 3. Lower Conductor Resistivity

  • 4. Lower Cable Reactance

  • 5. Boost up Supply Voltage

  • 6. Use Higher Supply Voltage

  • 7. Parallel Circuit

  • 8. Reduce Temperature of Operation

Voltage Drop Vs Distribution Arrangement

Each Load = 100A Distance of Each Load = 3m

Voltage Drop Vs Distribution Arrangement Each Load = 100A Distance of Each Load = 3m N
N N N N
N
N
N
N
  • SUB- RING

DISTRIBUTION

RISER

DISTRIBUTION

ARRANGEMENT

RADIAL

170 %

  • 0.39 %

  • 0.28 %

Installation Cost

100 %

  • 0.92 %

210 %

180 %)

Min. V.D.

  • 0.23 %

  • 0.47 %

  • 0.18 %

  • 0.13 %

  • 0.11 %

Max. V.D.

Voltage Drop Vs Different Type of Distribution Means

Voltage Drop Vs Different Type of Distribution Means Load = 100A Distance = 100m DISTRIBUTION MEANS

Load = 100A

Distance = 100m

DISTRIBUTION

MEANS

PVC CABLE XLPE FR Cu BUSBAR A1. BUSBAR
PVC
CABLE
XLPE
FR
Cu BUSBAR
A1.
BUSBAR

Installation Cost

V.D.%

0.73% 0.73 % 0.07% 0.12% 100 % 120 % 130 % 210 % 180% 0.52 %
0.73%
0.73 %
0.07%
0.12%
100 %
120 %
130 %
210 %
180%
0.52 %
DISTRIBUTION MEANS PVC CABLE XLPE FR Cu BUSBAR A1. BUSBAR Installation Cost V.D.% 0.73% 0.73 %

Voltage Drop Limit

 

10%

CP5

525.01

V.D.

4%

Supply Utility Voltage Regulation

= 6%

6%

Most Electrical Appliance Operate properly within Voltage Regulation = 10%

V.D. Limit

= 4%

4% 6%
4%
6%

V.D.

Typical Allowable Voltage Drop

10% 1.0% 1.0% 2.5% 3% Final Circuit Voltage Drop 3.0% 4% 3.0% 1.5% 1% Sub-Main Voltage
10%
1.0%
1.0%
2.5%
3%
Final Circuit
Voltage Drop
3.0%
4%
3.0%
1.5%
1%
Sub-Main
Voltage Drop
6%
Supply Utilities
Voltage
Regulation
6%
6%
6%
6%
6%
Lift/Escalator
Lighting Small
Power
ACMV
Fire Pump
UPS Load
MCC

Voltage Drop at Steady State / Transient Condition

3% 3% Load M 2% S B N
3%
3%
Load
M
2%
S B
N

1%

3% 3% M Load 2% S B 1% N
3%
3%
M
Load
2%
S B
1%
N

Voltage Drop at Steady State / Transient Condition

3% 3% 3% Load 3% M M 5% 6% 4% Load 6% 2% 2% S B
3%
3%
3%
Load
3%
M
M
5%
6%
4%
Load
6%
2%
2%
S B
S B
3%
4%
1%
1%
2%
2%
N
N
Voltage Drop with Consideration of Cable Reactance 2.5% 0.3% 1.2% 1.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.2% 1.3% 0.9%
Voltage Drop with Consideration of Cable Reactance
2.5%
0.3%
1.2%
1.6%
2.5%
2.5%
2.2%
1.3%
0.9%
6mm 2
16mm 2
25mm 2
240mm 2
500mm 2

(Voltage Drop) r = IR

(Less Than 16sq mm)

(Voltage Drop) R , X, Cos = IRCos + I X Sin

Voltage Drop with Temperature Correction

Cable (R & X) data given @ Rated Cable Temp. (e.g. 70 o C Conductor Temp. for PVC Cable-30 o C Ambient)

I

Load
Load

Temp

30m

 

Ambient Temp = 25 o C

I(design)=20A

1/c 10sqmm PVC cable I(table) =59A

(mV/A/m)r=3.8mV/A/m

VD=3.8mV*20A*30m=2.28V

R

V.D.

Voltage Drop with Temperature Correction

Cable (R & X) data given @ Rated Cable Temp. (e.g. 70 o C Conductor Temp. for PVC Cable-30 o C Ambient)

I

Load
Load

Temp

T 20A t ambient

t70 o C t reference

30m

T 20A

=

I 2

R design
R
design

I 2 table

V.D.

=

t ambient

+

I 2 design

I 2 table

(t70 o C t reference )

Ambient Temp = 25 o C

I(design)=20A

1/c 10sqmm PVC cable I(table) =59A

(mV/A/m)r=3.8mV/A/m

VD=3.8mV*20A*30m=2.28V

=

25

20 2

+

  • 2 (70 30)

59

= 29.6 o C

Voltage Drop with Temperature Correction

The Corrected TV.D at 29.6 o C is:

(TVD r ) 29.6oC

VD

=

(TVD r )

= (TVD ) 230 + 29.6

230 + 29.6

= (TVD ) 230 + 29.6
 

230 + 70

=

3.8 x 0.86

 

=

3.27

=

(TVD r Cos ) x I x L

 
 

1000

=

3.27 x 0.8 x 20 x 30

 
 

1000

=

1.57 V

=

69% of

(VD/A/m)r only