p s k
. . .
=
( )
0,1, 0 s
.
= ( )
1, 0, 0 p
.
=
s
p
Halfwave Plate
Shift the phase between 2 perpendicular
components of electric field (the phase shift is rad)
Change linear polarized wave into another linear
polarized wave
Material: quartz, calcite
Optical axis = fast axis/extraordinary axis is
the axis with the smaller index of refraction
Slow axis = ordinary axis (perpendicular to fast axis)
is the axis with the higher index of refraction
The light component along the fast axis will travel
faster than the light component along the slow axis
Due to velocity difference, the light component
along fast axis and slow axis will be shifted until
the outcome phase shift is rad. The phase shift
depends on the thickness of a material.
= phase shift
n
e
= extraordinary index
n
o
= ordinary index
L = thickness of material
= wavelength
2 .( ).
e o
n n L t

=
Quarterwave Plate
Shift the phase between 2 perpendicular components of
electric field (the shift phase is /2 rad)
Change linear polarized wave into circular polarized wave
when the incident light makes 45
0
angle with the fast
axis
Electro Optic Modulator
A device used for controlling the polarization of a laser
beam with an electrical control signal
By applying an appropriate voltage to the RF input, a
corresponding change in the extraordinary refractive
index will occur
The voltage required for inducing a phase change of is
called the halfwave voltage
Jones Matrix
Linear horizontal polarizer
Linear vertical polarizer
Half wave plate
Quarter wave plate
Example: linearly polarized light 45
0
(basis ) is
incident on a horizontal polarizer. The outcome is
horizontally polarized
1 0
0 0
(
(
0 0
0 1
(
(
cos 2 sin2
sin2 cos 2
u u
u u
(
(
2 2
2 2
cos sin (1 )sin cos
(1 )sin cos sin cos
i i
i i
u u u u
u u u u
( +
(
+
1 0 1 1
0 0 1 0
( ( (
=
( ( (
1
1
(
(
For beam splitter, please see: A. L. Fymat. Jones's matrix representation of
optical instruments. I: Beam splitters. Appl. Opt. 10(11), pp. 24992505. 1971.
Conclusion
Beam splitter is used to resolve a beam of light
into 2 beams by reflecting the swave and
transmitting the pwave
The wave plates (half and quarter wave plate) are
designed to change the state of polarization of
incoming light
The Electro Optic Modulators use a potential
difference to change and adjust the extraordinary
refractive index to get the expected phase shift
between 2 components of light