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TESTING OF CORROSION IN RCC BEAMS

BATCH MEMBERS

ABSTRACT
Most of structures while in service are subjected to aggressive influences of environment. These corrosive attacks on structures cause damage and lead to failure of the structural element or the whole structure. Corrosion causes deterioration of material and leads to destruction of structures, especially in coastal and industrial areas. Corrosion of steel is an electro-chemical phenomenon. Electro-chemical corrosion results because of the existence of different metals or non-uniformities in steel or non-uniformities in chemical or physical environment, afforded by the surrounding concrete. This thesis is worked with the comparison of three beams (M30(Normal), M30,M20). The experimental results have compared to the half-cell potentiometer readings and the % weight of loss of three beams were casted whose sizes were 750X150X100 mm respectively.

INTRODUCTION
In the recent past corrosion in concrete structures has been considered as major durability problems affecting the service life of concrete structures. Corrosion occurs when two different metals or metals in different environments are electrically connected in moist concrete. This paper represents a methodology for a systematic inside testing of corrosion in RCC structures.

OBJECTIVES
To compare and analyses the half-cell potentiometer readings of the specimens To compare and analyses the percentage loss of weight of steel of the specimens.

FORMS OF CORROSION
Uniform Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion Intergranular Corrosion Selective Leaching Erosion Corrosion Stress Corrosion

STATES OF CORROSION
Passivity state State of pitting corrosion State of general corrosion State of active, low corrosion potential

FACTORS INFLUENCING CORROSION


Inadequate cover thickness Quality of concrete in the cover regions Environmental conditions

Chloride level in concrete


Presence of cracks etc.,

FACTORS INFLUENCING CORROSION

MATERIALS USED
CEMENT OPC used.(53grade) COURSE AGGREGATE The sample of crushed aggregate passing through a 20mm IS sieve & retaining on a 4.75mm IS sieve is used. FINE AGGREGATE Locally available sand passing through 4.75mm IS sieve & retaining 150microns sieve. STEEL PROVISIONS main bars - 10mm bars (Fe-415) stirrups - 8mm bars (Fe-415)

MIX DESIGN
Method of design is Indian standard method. Design mix ratio of M20 is 1:1.5:3 Design mix ratio of M30 is 1:2:2.5 For all the mixes w/c ratio is 0.55.

BEAM DESIGN
Minimum tension reinforcement: (Ast / bd) = (0.85 /fy ) >0.34% for mild steel (fy =250N/mm2) >0.20% for HYSD bars (fy =415N/mm2) Maximum reinforcement: 0.04 b.D for both tension and compression reinforcement. Spacing between bars: Diameter of larger bar nor less than the normal maximum size of coarse aggregate plus 5 mm whichever is greater. Nominal cover: 25 mm nor less than the diameter of the bar. Curtailment: Refer clause 26.2.3 of IS 456-2000

METHODOLOGY
Beam specimens of size is 750x150x100mm are caste. The impressed current is applied to accelerate the corrosion process. Stainless steel plate is act as cathode. Main reinforcements in a beam is connected to anodic part of D.C power supply. The half-cell potentiometer readings of the specimens are compared to the M20&M30 specimens. The half-cell potentiometer readings of the specimens are analyzed.

HALFCELL POTENTIAL MEASUREMENT

CORROSION RISK BY HALF CELL POTENTIAL


CORROSION POTENTIAL

>95% 50% <5%

More negative than -350 mV -200 to -350 mV More positive than -200 mV

CORROSION PROCESS
D C TO A C CO N VERTER
20 10 0

V
30 40 50 60 0 1

A
3 4 5 6

TAB

ANODE BEAM
CATHODE STEEL PLATE

Nacl

CORROSION MECHANISM

CORROSION MECHANISM
The reactions at the anode and cathode are expressed as given below Fe O2 + 2H 2O + 4e- Fe2 + + 2OH Fe2++2e 4OH- Fe (OH) (at anode) (at cathode) (at Anode)

4Fe(OH) -2+2H2O+ O2 4Fe(OH) (at Anode) (Hydrated red rust) 3Fe + 8OH- Fe 3O 4+ 8e -- + 4H 2O (Black rust)

TABULATION
Half-cell potentiometer readings (For M30-Normal)
Time in hours 0th hour 40 hours 50 hours 60 hours

Phase of Beam

Top

Sides

Bottom

Top

Sides

Bottom

Top

Sides

Bottom

Top

Sides

Bott om 136 134 132 138 129 125 132.3

101 99

100 102 104 102 98 99 100.8

98 97 96 99 98 100 98

112 110 115 117 109 108 111.8

110 115 117 115 118 116 115.1

115 113 109 116 119 108 113.3

126 123 124 120 118 119 121.6

123 124 122 128 125 127 124.8

120 122 121 125 123 128 123.1

134 131 132 135 129 130 131.8

139 137 135 134 131 133 134.8

Half-cell readings

102 105 98 96

Average 100.1

FIG.HALF-CELL READING
Half-cell Readings for M30 (Normal)
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 Duration in Hours

Half-cell Readings

oth hour 40th hour 50th hour 60th hour

From the above figure corrosion is not initiated up to 60 hours.

TABULATION
Half-cell potentiometer readings (For M30)
Time in hours 0th hour 40 hours 50 hours 60 hours

Phase of Beam

Top 104 99

Sides 106 101 100 98 99 100 100.6

Bott om
99 98 96 100 103 101 99.5

Top 296 252 202 277 240 298 260.8

Sides 256 263 321 306 253 256 275.8

Botto m
182 272 345 439 391 359 331.3

Top 417 430 416 438 450 440 431.8

Sides 484 508 509 479 523 526 504.8

Bottom 490 483 420 406 449 474 453.6

Top 540 555 553 524 534 546 542

Sides 551 519 520 563 544 522 536.6

Bottom 529 534 542 538 528 554 537.5

Half-cell readings

100 102 105 104

Average

102.3

FIG.HALF-CELL READING
Half-Cell Readings For M30
600

Half-cell Readings

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 Duration in hours 0th hour 40th hour 50th hour 60 th hour

From the above figure corrosion initiated after 40 hours.

TABULATION
Half-cell potentiometer readings (For M20)
Time in hours Phase of Beam Top 94 99 Half-cell readings 104 100 106 108 Average 101.8 0th hour Sides 104 102 104 99 102 103 102.3 Bottom 100 102 101 99 96 101 99.8 40 hours Top 392 384 398 410 483 396 410.5 Sides 460 472 525 493 522 500 495.3 Bottom 509 542 501 560 508 530 525 Top 530 563 532 557 590 598 561.6 50 hours Sides 564 594 568 593 589 584 582 Bottom 589 590 560 576 583 569 577.8 Top 610 642 659 623 665 634 638.8 60 hours Sides 599 664 671 655 664 671 654 Bot tom 609 647 599 589 567 529 590

FIG.HALF-CELL READING
Hal-Cell Readings M20
700

Half-cell readings

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 Duration in hours 0th hour 40th hour 50th hour 60th hour

From the above figure corrosion is initiated in 40 hours.

COMPARISION
Comparision of M 30 (Normal) & M 30
600

Half-cell Readings

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 Duration in hours M30 (Normal) M30

From the above figure when comparing half cell readings in M30 (Normal) & M30 gives better results than M30

COMPARISION
Comparision of M 30 (Normal), M 30 , M 20
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 Duration in Hours

Half-cell Readings

M30 (Normal) M30 M20

When comparing M30 (Normal), M30, M20 & half cell readings is less value in M30

TABULATION
% Loss of Weight in Steel Rods(After 60 Hours)
Sl.No Type of Beams Initial (gm) Final (gm) Loss of Weight (gm) % Loss of Weight

Main Bars 1. M20 Stirrups

1895

1875

20

1.0

790

775

15

1.8

Main Bars 2. M30 Stirrups

2015

2000

15

0.7

800

790

10

1.25

3.

M30 (Norm al)

Main Bars

1995

1990

0.25

Stirrups

760

760

0.91

CONCLUSION
From the comparision of half-cell readings, it is obtained that the beams are initiated by corrosion at an early stage in M2040 hours, M3050 hours. In M30(N) half cell readings are less than (-) 250mv.Therefore no initiation in M30 before 60 hours. From fig when comparing half-cell readings in M30(N)&M30 gives better results than M30.

When comparing M30&M20 half-cell readings is less value in M30.


Accelerating corrosion by using impressed current in M30&M20 gives better result.

From the above corrosion is less in Grade M30(comparing M20).


The comparision of % loss of weight of rebar steel in beams are 1.637 times greater than M30 when compare to M30(N) after 60 hrs. 1.473 times greater than M20 when compare to M30 after 60 hrs.

QUERIES