Cellular Biology

Chapter 1 BIOL 300 Chris Westerkamp, Ph.D.

Cellular Functions

• • • • • • • •

Movement Conductivity Metabolic absorption Secretion Excretion Respiration Reproduction Communication

Eukaryotic Cell
• Nucleus

Eukaryotic Cell
• Cytoplasm

Eukaryotic Cell

• Cytoplasm –Cytoplasmic matrix –Cytosol –Cytoplasmic organelles

Eukaryotic Cell

• Cytoplasm –Cytoplasmic matrix • Space between nuclear envelope and plasma membrane

Eukaryotic Cell

• Cytoplasm –Cytoplasmic matrix • Space between nuclear envelope and plasma membrane –Cytosol • Aqueous solution filling matrix

• Ribosomes –RNA protein –Free ribosomes –Attached ribosomes • Endoplasmic reticulum –Site of protein synthesis –Smooth vs. rough endoplasmic reticulum

Eukaryotic Organelles

Eukaryotic Organelles

• Golgi complex –Flattened, smooth membranes –Secretory vesicles –Proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum are packaged in the Golgi complex

Eukaryotic Organelles

• Lysosomes –Originate from the Golgi –Catalyze proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates –Role in autodigestion

Eukaryotic Organelles

• Mitochondria –Surrounded by a double lipid– bilayer membrane –Participates in oxidative phosphorylation –Increased inner membrane surface area provided by cristae

• Cytoskeleton –“Bones and muscles” of the cell –Maintains the cell’s shape and internal organization –Permits movement of substances within the cell and movement of external projections –Microtubules –Microfilaments

Plasma Membrane

• 3 important functions

Plasma Membrane

• 3 important functions –Define size and shape of the cell

Plasma Membrane

• 3 important functions –Define size and shape of the cell –Selectively permeable

Plasma Membrane

• 3 important functions –Define size and shape of the cell –Selectively permeable –Surface at which the cell interacts with the environment

Membrane Fluidity

• Proteins –Integral, peripheral, transmembrane –Functions • Receptors • Transport • Enzymes • Surface markers • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) • Catalysts

Plasma Membrane
• Plasma membrane protein functions

Cellular Receptors

• Ligands • Plasma membrane receptors

Membrane Transport

• Active transport –Active transport pumps –Transport by vesicle formation • Endocytosis –Pinocytosis –Phagocytosis –Receptor mediated • Exocytosis

Membrane Transport

• cell engulfs a substance by forming a vesicle around the substance • three types • pinocytosis – substance is mostly water • phagocytosis – substance is a solid • receptor-mediated endocytosis – requires the substance to bind to a membrane-bound receptor



verse of endocytosis bstances in a vesicle fuse with cell memb ntents released outside the cell ease of neurotransmitters from nerve ce



Cellular Communication • Gap junctions (contact signaling) • Chemical signaling – Hormonal – Neurohormonal – Paracrine – Autocrine • Neurotransmitters

Osmolarity and Osmolality
• Osmolarity- number of milliosmoles/L • Osmolality-number of milliosmoles/kg
– We can use them interchangeably in a dilute solution
• ECF & ICF both 285mOsm/L • plasma at 286.5mOsm/L

• Osmotic effect only with semipermeable membranes

Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Membrane Transport

Active Transport

• Na K pump • Functions of Na-K pump
– Maintain high [K] in ICF – Maintain low [Na] in ICF

Electrical Impulses
• Resting membrane potential • Action potential
– Depolarization – Threshold potential
• Hyperpolarized vs. hypopolarized

– Repolarization – Refractory period
• Absolute and relative

Cellular Metabolism
• Metabolism
– Sum of all chemical reactions in the body – Anabolism
• Energy using

– Catabolism
• Energy releasing

Adenosine Triphosphate
• Created from the chemical energy contained within organic molecules • Used in synthesis of organic molecules, muscle contraction, and active transport • Stores and transfers energy

Cellular Energy
• Digestion • Glycolysis
– Occurs in the cytoplasm – Anaerobic

• Citric acid cycle
– Also called Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) – Occurs in mitochondria

• Membrane transport • Metabolism in the cell • Communication between cells

Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Chris Westerkamp

Cellular Adaptation
• Physiologic vs. pathogenic
– Atrophy – Hypertrophy – Hyperplasia – Dysplasia – Metaplasia

Cellular Adaptation

Cellular Injury
• Reversible • Irreversible

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