BY:Arshdeep Boparai Mtech (Est) 601101003.

What is energy storage?
 Energy storage is accomplished by devices or

physical media that store energy to perform useful operation at a later time.  All forms of energy are either potential energy (e.g. Chemical, gravitational, electrical energy, etc.) or kinetic energy (e.g.thermal energy).

 Electrical energy is stored during times when production exceeds consumption  The stores are used at times when consumption exceeds production

For example, wind farms often generate more power at night when winds speeds are high but demand for electricity is low; EES could be used to shift this output to periods of high demand
 Storing energy allows humans to balance the supply and demand of energy .

Importance of ESS
 Thrust for Renewable Energy sources  Variable outputs  Energy Buffering  Importance  Characteristics( energy density & discharge

time)  Why new technologies and devices?

Different Types of ESS
 Flywheel
 Compressed air energy storage  Pumped water energy storage

 Superconducting magnetic energy
 Electrochemical storage (batteries)  Thermal storage  Fuel cells

Mechanical Energy Storage Fly Wheels
 Principle: Energy is stored in the form of Mechanical Energy.  A heavy rotating rotar is accelerated by an electric motor, which acts as a generator on reversal, slowing down the disc and producing electricity.

Advantages and disadvantages:
 Very compact when compared to other energy

storage systems.  Flywheels are used for starting and braking locomotives.  A flywheel is preferred due to light weight and high energy capacity.  It is not economical as it had a limited amount of charge/discharge cycle.

Compressed Air Energy Storage

Operation:  Uses off-peak electricity to compress air and store it in airtight underground caverns.  When the air is released from storage, it expands through a combustion turbine to create electricity.  Energy density = 0.2~2 MJ/Kg
Advantages and disadvantages:  Fast start-up and huge energy  Draw back - Geological structure reliance

Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage

Operation:  It consists of two large reservoirs located at different elevations.  During peak demand, water is released from the upper reservoir.  If Production exceeds Demand, water is pumped up and stored in the upper reservoir.

Advantages and disadvantages:
 Most effective with largest capacity of electricity

  

(over 2000 MW). Energy density = 0.001MJ/Kg, η= 70-85% Geographical dependence. The capital cost is massive. Soil erosion, land inundation, Silting of dams.

Magnetic Energy Storage
Super Conductors

 SMES systems store energy in a magnetic field

created by the flow of direct current in a coil of superconducting material that has been cryogenically cooled.  Principle: At low-temperatures, electric currents encounter almost no resistance.  Stores energy in the magnetic field.  Environmental friendly and Highly efficient.

Electrochemical Storage
Types of Batteries:
    

Lead acid battery Nickel batteries Lithium Batteries Flow Batteries or regenerate fuel cells Sodium-Sulphur Batteries

Storage batteries are rechargeable electrochemical systems used to store energy. They deliver in the form of electric energy.

Working of a Lead acid Battery

Lithium Batteries
 Electrochemical cells  Currently, lithium battery technology is

typically used in mobile or laptop systems  In the near future it is envisaged to be used in hybrid or electric vehicles  Higher energy density and energy efficiency.  Environmental impact

Thermal Energy Storage
There are two very different types of (TES): 1. TES for solar thermal power plants consists of a synthetic oil or molten salt that stores solar energy in the form of heat collected by solar thermal power plants to enable smooth power output during daytime or cloudy period. 2. End-use TES stores electricity from off-peak periods through the use of hot or cold storage in underground aquifers, water or ice tanks, or other storage materials and uses this stored energy to reduce the electricity consumption of building heating or air conditioning systems during times of peak demand.

Fuel Cells
 Direct conversion

EnergyElectricity  High Efficiency  Applications: E.g.: NASA, Viable alternative to petrol engines.

Advantages:  No green house gases  Less pollution  More operating time.
Disadvantages:  Storage of Hydrogen due to highly inflammable nature of H2. Though metal hydrides(FeTiH1.7) and NH3 can be alternative.  High capital cost due to Platinum catalyst used in the process.

The future of energy storage
 Nanotech Batteries: construct millions -- and

ultimately billions -- of tiny, virtually identical nanostructures to receive, store, and deliver electrical energy

 Graphite + water : A combination of two ordinary materials – graphite and water – could produce energy storage systems that perform on par with lithium ion batteries, but recharge in a matter of seconds and have an almost indefinite lifespan.  Moldable Batteries Made From Paper

Which is better ???
 Comparing one method of energy storage with another is pointless.
 The reason - None of them are optimal for all purposes.  Different storage methods differ in capacity and maximum usable storage time.

 For large scale storage Underground thermal, pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage systems are preferable.
 Superconductors can store energy with negligible losses.  Fuel cells are a viable alternative to petrol engines due to their high efficiency.

 Flywheels have a narrow range and are not an answer for large scale operations.

 Reliable and affordable energy storage is a

prerequisite for using renewable energy.  Energy storage therefore has a pivotal role in the future.  Energy storage is the most promising technology currently available to meet the ever increasing demand for energy.


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