Rice husk based energy generation…


Rice husk
 Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of

grains of rice.
 The outermost layer of the paddy grain is the rice husk, also

called rice hull. It is separated from the rice in rice milling. Burning rice husk produced rice husk ash (RHA), if the burning process is incomplete carbonized rice husk (CRH) is produced.
 In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice

hulls can be put to use as building material ,fertilizer, insulation material, or fuel. Husk has a high calorific value and therefore can be used as a renewable fuel.

Rice husk ash

Carbonized rice husk

Rice husk ash

Carbonized rice husk

 White, fine structure  Contains around 85-90% amorphous

 Black, often still in the shape of

silica  around 25% of the weight of husk

the husk  Depending on the combustion still contains 8-15% carbon

 Partial cement replacement material

 Activated carbon  Soil conditioner for poor soils  Carbon sequestration, bio char  Charcoal as fuel

for high-strength concrete  Steel additive for quality steel or powder in steel production.  Used in manufacturing of refractory bricks  Insulators

Characteristics of rice husk
 Rice husk is difficult to ignite.  It is highly resistant to moisture penetration and
   

fungal decomposition. Rice husk has a high silica (SiO2) content. Handling of rice husk is difficult because it is bulky and dusty. When burned the ash content is 17-26%, a lot higher than fuels (wood 0.2-2%, coal 12.2%). rice husk has very low density and therefore transport over longer distance is expensive.

Disadvantages of rice husk
 when rice husk is fermented by microorganisms, methane

is emitted contributing to global warming problem .

 Rice husk is a fine and light particle and can cause

breathing problems plus if burnt in open (combustion), adding to respiratory problem, serious incidents of fire can also occur.

 If discharged in rivers and canals, these cover the surface of

water and deplete dissolved oxygen. It produces malodors, black coloration, and high turbidity in the water which affects the aquatic life as well as cause problems to people living nearby and using the same water.

 The rice mill owner should find the proper way to deal

with this waste.  Cement Industry can use rice husk to add silica in the product itself because rice husk content high silica, and some amount of the waste are used as fertilizer in fields.  And the most beneficial way that has been proposed is using the husk for energy production.

Why rice husk over fossil fuels?
 It’s a low cost fuel.
 Has low levels of sulphur and of heavy metals, hence is

relatively non-polluting.  It is carbon-neutral.  Husk has a high calorific value and therefore can be used as a renewable fuel.  Conversion of rice husk into heat, steam, gases, or liquid fuels could bring benefits to countries that have no conventional energy resources .

The process

Rice husk gasifier components
 Rice husk feed system  Downdraft gasifier

 Pneumatic conveyor
 Momentum seperator  An ash discharge system  Tar adsorber  A cyclone seperator.

A downdraft rice husk gasifier

Rice husk gasifier
    

Salient features: Compared to diesel system about Rs.300/day can be saved Cost of a unit: Rs 25000 Cost of operation : Rs 30/hr Gas yield : 10 -12 m3/hr Rice husk consumption rate : 6-8 kg/hr

Rice husk gasification
Basic Process Chemistry • Conversion of solid fuels into combustible gas mixture called producer gas (CO + H2 + CH4) • Involves partial combustion of biomass.  Four distinct process in the gasifier viz.  – Drying  – Pyrolysis  – Combustion  – Reduction


Uses of producer gas
 Burner  Boiler

 Furnace
 Gas engine  Gas turbine

Electricity production by producer gas
 Electric power generation from few kW to MW, either

for local consumption or for grid power  To operate diesel engine on dual fuel mode with 8085% diesel replacement  To operate gas engine on 100% mode  To operate water pumps for irrigation purpose.

Thermal use of producer gas..
Heating values of syngas are generally around 410 MJ/m3
 – Dryers: Drying applications in farm products, food

and spices industry like large cardamom, ginger, rubber and tea (Temp. requirement 80 –130oC). .  – Kilns: Baking of tiles, potteries (Temperature requirement –800 –950oC).

 – Furnaces: For melting metals and alloys in non-

ferrous (Temperature requirement ~650-1000oC).  – Boilers: Process industries, which require steam or hot water like silk reeling, dyeing, turmeric boiling, cooking, jaggery making etc.

Other benefits
 As transport fuel: Diesel engines can be operated on

dual fuel mode using producer gas  The ash produced has high silica content, used in cement industries, for producing refractory bricks as an insulator and as a steel additive.  The biochar produced is a nice soil amendment.

Husk power systems, Bihar
 Lighted the first village by its first 100% biomass based

power plant using rice husk to generate electricity in aug, 2007  Today it has installed 60 mini-power plants that power ~25,000 households in more than 250 villages.  On an average, each power plant serves about 400 households and replaces ~ 42,000 litres of kerosene and 18,000 litres of diesel per year.

Environmental impact
 study shows that rice husk gasification is an

environmentally friendly way of mitigating CO2,SOx and NOx emissions when compared with conventional systems.
 The emission of CO2 from combustion of rice husk are

considered zero since they do not contribute to global warming.
 CO and dust emissions are slightly higher than

conventional power production pointing to need for improving the combustion efficiency of the rice husk power plant.

 The tar is cooled with water and is passed through the

scrubber for purification, but if treatment isn’t available ,there is a risk that some of the dirty water stream may seep into the ground and ultimately into local water courses or the water table. sequestration. So if handled properly, it wont pose much problem. feedstock for electricity production and performs better than fossil fuels (especially coal and oil) from the point of view of environmental emissions but the process has to be taken up properly and carefully.

 But, biochar happens to serve as a medium for carbon

 Overall, the study indicates that rice husk is a viable

Recent advancements…
 As the high ash content, low bulk density, poor flow

characteristics and low ash melting point makes the other types of reactors like grate furnaces and downdraft gasifiers either inefficient or unsuitable for rice husk conversion to energy, the fluidized bed reactor seems to be the promising choice.
 Zeolite ZSM-48 with a very high crystallinity (99%+)

can be synthesized from a reaction mixture containing a silica source from rice husk gasification ash.

 Rice husk gasifier stoves are low-cost and

environment-friendly and address the high cost of fuel associated with domestic cooking and with supplying heat for various small-scale industries applications such as drying, baking, and heating.

Getting ahead…

from waste to watt !
Thank you!!

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