Power Electronics

Introduction Chapter 1 Power Electronic Devices Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5

Introduction Outline     What is power electronics? The history Applications About this course .

. Range of power scale : milliwatts(mW) megawatts(MW) gigawatts(GW) A more exact explanation: The primary task of power electronics is to process and control the flow of electric energy by supplying voltages and currents in a form that is optimally suited for user loads. What is power electronics? 1) Definition Power Electronics: is the electronics applied to conversion and control of electric power.I.

Conversion of electric power Other names for electric power converter: -Power converter -Converter -Switching converter -Power electronic circuit -Power electronic converter  Power input Electric Power Converter Control input Power output .

Power converter along with its controller including the corresponding measurement and interface circuits. .Power electronic system Generic structure of a power electronic system Power input Power Converter Control input Controller Reference Power output Feedforward ( measurements of input signals ) Feedback (measurements of output signals ) Control is invariably required. is also called power electronic system.

 A typical power electronic system Source Power input Vi ii Power Converter Power output io Vo Load Electric utility battery other electric energy source power converter Electric Motor light Measurements heating Controller other electric equipment Reference power converter The task of power electronics has been recently extended to also ensuring the currents and power consumed by power converters and loads to meet the requirement of electric energy sources. .

e.g. semiconductor devices Electronics Physical electronics: physics.material.g. vacuum tubes devices Solid (Solid state) electronics: using solid state devices. e. and manufacturing of electronic devices Applied electronics: application of electronic devices to various areas Electronics .2) Relation with information electronics A Classification of electronics by processing object Information electronics: to process information Electronics Power electronics: to process electric power Other classifications of electronics Vacuum electronics: using vacuum devices.fabrication.

Newell’s description Electronics Devices.circuits Power Static & rotating power equipment 学 Power Electronics Continuous. . discrete 学 Control 连续、离 散 Power electronics is the interface between electronics and power.3) The interdisciplinary nature William E.

 Relation with multiple disciplines Systems& Control theory Signal processing Simulation & computing electronics electr Power systems electronics Solid state physics Circuit Ct theory Control Electric machines theory Power oni cs Electromagnetics electr Power electronics is currently the most active discipline in electric power engineering. .

and how to improve the quality and utilization of electric power.4) Position and significance in the human society Electric power is used in almost every part and everywhere of modern human society. The objective of power electronics is right on how to use electric power. and power electronics is the muscle. Power electronics and information electronics make two poles of modern technology and human society: information electronics is the brain. Electric power is the major form of energy source used in modern human society. . and how to use it effectively and efficiently.

II.tube rectifier Power diode Power MOSFET Thyratron Thyristor Thyristor (microprocessor) 1900 1957 mid 1970s IGBT Power MOSFET Thyristor (DSP) late 1980s Pre-history 1st phase 2nd phase 3rd phase .controlled Thyristor semiconductor GTO devices Mercury arc rectifier GTR Vacuum.switching Invention of fully. The history Applicat ion of fast.

Applications  Industrial applications Motor drives Electrolysis Electroplating Induction heating Welding Arc furnaces and ovens Lighting .III.

 Transportation applications Trains & locomotives Subways Trolley buses Magnetic levitation Electric vehicles Automotive electronics Ship power systems Aircraft power systems .

APF Custom power & power quality control Supplemental energy sources : wind. fuel cells Energy storage systems  . SVG.voltage dc transmission(HVDC) Flexible ac transmission(FACTS) Static var compensation & harmonics suppression: TCR. photovoltaic.Utility stems applications High. TSC.

 Power supplies for electronic equipment Telecommunications Computers Office equipment Electronic instruments Portable or mobile electronics .

 Residential and home appliances Lighting Heating Air conditioning Refrigeration & freezers Cooking Cleaning Entertaining .

 Applications in space technology Spaceship power systems Satellite power systems Space vehicle power systems .

 Other aplications Nuclear reactor control Power systems for particle accelerators Environmental engineering .

 Trends It is estimated that in developed countries now 60% of the electric energy goes through some kind of power electronics converters before it is finally used. Power electronics has been making major contributions to: --better performance of power supplies and better control of electric equipment --energy saving --environment protection reduction of energy consumption leads to less pollution reduction of pollution produced by power converters direct applications to environment protection technology .

500W How can this converter be realized? . A simple example A simple dc-dc converter example I 10A Vg 100V + - + Dc-dc converter R 5Ω V 50V - Input source:100V Output load:50V. 10A.IV.

Dissipative realization Resistive voltage divider  I 10A Vg 100V + - + 50V - + Ploss=500W R 5Ω V 50V Pin=1000W Pout=500W .

Series pass regulator: transistor operates in active region I + 50V 10A + linear amplifier Vg 100V + - - Vref And base driver + R 5Ω V 50V Ploss≈500W Pin≈1000W Pout=500W .

 Use of a SPDT switch I 10A Vg 100V + - 1 2 + Vs(t) + R V(t) 50V Vs(t) - Vg Vs=DVg 0 switch position: DTs 1 (1-D)Ts 2 t 1 .

- DTs 1 (1-D)Ts 2 t 1 Ts=switching period fs=switching frequency =1/ Ts DC component of Vs(t)=average value: Vs = ∫ Ts 0 Vs(t) dt =DVg .The switch changes the dc voltage level Vs(t) Vg Vs=DVg 0 switch position: D=switch duty cycle 0<D<1 .

C low. for removal of switching harmonics:  I 1 Vg 100V + Pin≈500W 10A + 2 Vs(t) L C + R V(t) 50V Ploss small Pout=500W - Choose filter cutoff frequency f0 much smaller than switching frequency fs.Addition of low pass filter Addition of (ideally lossless) L. .pass filter. This circuit is known as the “buck converter”.

 Addition of control system for regulation of output voltage Power input Switching converter + Load Vg + - i sensor gain V transistor gate driver error signal H(s) δ(t) δ dTs Ts t Ve Pulse-width Vc Gc(s) + modulator compensator Reference Vref input .

 .for reliable operation of power semiconductor devices -. How to reduce negative influence to other equipment in the electric power system and to the electromagnetic environment. less weight.Major issues in power electronics How to meet the requirement of the load or gain better control of the load How to improve the efficiency -. and less cost.for energy saving How to realize power conversion with less volume.

V. 4. 8 Control techniques: Chapter 6 and 7 . About this course Three parts of the content Power electronic devices: Chapter 1 Power electronic circuits: Chapter 2. 5. 3.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times