By

,

Dhruv Vyas &

Gandhi Jay

Printer printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form. .

Type Of Printer 1. 3.5.4 Dye-sublimation printers 2.5 Inkless printers • 2.1 Thermal printers • 2.2 UV printers .3 Solid ink printers 2.2 Liquid inkjet printers 2.5. Inkjet printers Laser printers 2 Modern print technology2. Dot-matrix printers 2.1 Toner-based printers 2.

Printing technology Printers are routinely classified by the printer technology they employ. The choice of engine has a substantial effect on what jobs a printer is suitable for. . print speed. Some printer technologies don't work with certain types of physical media. numerous such technologies have been developed over the years. and noise. as different technologies are capable of different levels of image or text quality. such as carbon paper or transparencies. cost.

used and troubleshot inkjet printers • Installed.Unit objectives • Identified features of dot-matrix printers • Installed. and troubleshot laser printers • Identified other printer types . used.

Type writers use friction feed. Type writer print quality Near Letter Quality (NQL) 9 or 24 pin print head 9pins == low quality and 24 pin has smaller pins close to each other giving better quality print.Dot-matrix printer Dot-Matrix printer been around since PCs. Impact printer—Multipart forms Use mechanical means to press ink from ribbon onto page. Various size and shape ribbon cartridges Tractor feed and friction feed Uses a sprocket to mesh with holes in the side of continuous form paper. Serial or parallel connections .

Overheating. Paper jams.Biggest problem paper jam -Less ventilation lead to overheating . patience is required to fix that . the cartridge that the ribbon contained within varies from printer to printer thus they are not interchangeable. tiny pins -The ink from the ribbon can clog the tiny pins that make up the -Pins can be bent -Electromagnet can be damaged Ribbon.) .Dot-matrix printer issues Print head -Print heads wear off after a while. (patience .If perforated sides can be ripped off they jam the printer. Each printer get its own ribbon.Poor print quality can simply mean that the ribbon needs to be replaced.Due to noisiness dot matrix printers are often kept under a padded.patience . sound proofed cover.

An inkjet printer .

Heats the ink.An inkjet printer Ink jet printers or Ink dispersion printers Forcing ink through tiny holes. and sprays onto paper. which vaporizes it creating a bubble. Thermal bubble technology. The bubble protrudes out through the nozzle. When the bubble bursts it creates a vacuum which draws more ink from the cartridge into the print head. readying it to create another dot. Two methods: Thermal Bubble or Piezoelectric Tech. 50-60 microns diameter. .

When it vibrates inward.Piezoelectric technology. An electrical current sent to the crystal causes it to vibrate. Ink cartridges– Ink reservoirs. A simple example is an image with only black and white in the color palette. Dithering is the process of juxtaposing pixels of two colors to create the illusion that a third color is present.Creates a bubble with a piezo crystal behind each nozzle. it releases ink onto the paper. The number varies from printer to printer. Dithering– Shades of each of basic color. when it vibrates outward it pulls ink from the cartridge. By combining black and white pixels in complex patterns a graphics program like Adobe Photoshop can create the illusion of gray values .

Inkjet printer cartridges .

and high quality prints of images with 200-300 ppi resolution. They will give acceptable quality photo prints of images with 140-200 pixels per inch (PPI) resolution. As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers (MFPs). are a type . also known as phase-change printers. laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printer's photoreceptor.Toner-based printers Main article: Laser printer A laser printer rapidly produces high quality text and graphics. Another toner-based printer is the LED printer which uses an array of LEDs instead of a laser to cause toner adhesion to the print drum. Today's photo-quality ink jet printers can typically print with a resolution of 1200 to 4800 dots per inch.[3] [edit]Solid ink printers Main article: Solid ink Solid ink printers. They are the most common type of computer printer used by consumers. Liquid inkjet printers Inkjet printers operate by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid ink onto almost any sized page.

Inkjet cartridge print heads .

Inkjet print quality Affected by: • DPI ( dots per inch) of the printer • Quality of the paper • Quality of the ink if printed page gets wet .

teletypewriter-derived printers. Impact printers rely on a forcible impact to transfer ink to the media. in widespread use. similar to the action of a typewriter. An overview of impact printing [4] contains a detailed description of many of the technologies used. The impact printer uses a print head that hits the surface of the ink ribbon.Obsolete and special-purpose printing technologies The following technologies are either obsolete. such as car rental services. or limited to special applications though most were. . dot matrix printers and line printers. In addition. per se) and special purpose pens that are mechanically run over the paper to create text and images. typewriter-derived printers. All but the dot matrix printer rely on the use of formed characters. most of these printers were limited to monochrome printing in a single typeface at one time. daisy wheel printers. although bolding and underlining of text could be done by "overstriking". Impact printers varieties include. that is. printing two or more impressions in the same character position. which presses the ink onto the paper. letterforms that represent each of the characters that the printer was capable of printing. at one time. Dot matrix printers remain in common use in businesses where multipart forms are printed. Pen-based plotters rely on contact with the paper (but not impact. Pen-based plotters were an alternate printing technology once common in engineering and architectural firms.

Typewriter-derived printers Main articles: Friden Flexowriter and IBM Selectric typewriter Several different computer printers were simply computer-controllable versions of existing electric typewriters. In either case. the letter form then struck a ribbon which was pressed . The Flexowriter printed with a conventional typebar mechanism while the Selectric used IBM's well-known "golf ball" printing mechanism. The Friden Flexowriter and IBM Selectric typewriter were the most-common examples.

or for special purpose uses: Digital minilab (photographic paper) Electrolytic printers Spark printer Barcode printer multiple technologies. including: thermal printing.Other printers A number of other sorts of printers are important for historical reasons. and laser printing barcodes Billboard / sign paint spray printers Laser etching (product packaging) industrial printers Microsphere (special paper) . inkjet printing.

A monochrome printer can only produce an image consisting of one colour. Character printers. . usually black. which includes the vast majority of printers produced today. such as laser printers and inkjet printers. A monochrome printer may also be able to produce various tones of that color. A colour printer can produce images of multiple colours. Pen plotters typically process vector images. others not. even if the printer is capable of it. such as daisy wheel printers. A photo printer is a colour printer that can produce images that mimic the colour range (gamut) and resolution of prints made fromphotographic film.Printing mode The data received by a printer may be: A string of characters A bitmapped image A vector image Some printers can process all three types of data. Modern printing technology. This is especially true of printers equipped with support for PostScript or PCL. Many printer drivers do not use the text mode at all. can adequately reproduce all three. because it allows better control over formatting. such as a grey-scale. Many can be used on a standalone basis without a computer. using a memory card or USB connector. Inkjet based plotters can adequately reproduce all three. can handle only plain text data or rather simple point plots. Today it is common to print everything (even plain text) by sending ready bitmapped images to the printer.

HP. Toshiba and Xerox[9] brand color laser printers. [edit]Printer steganography An illustration showing small yellow tracking dots on white paper. Konica Minolta. Usually pages per minute refers to sparse monochrome office documents. including Brother. These measures are used primarily as a marketing tool. Canon. Lanier. Ricoh. Kyocera. The dots are barely visible and . rather than dense pictures which usually print much more slowly. where tiny yellow dots are added to each page. generated by a color laser printer. Lexmark. Main article: printer steganography Printer steganography is a type of steganography produced by color printers. More modern printers are measured in pages per minute. PPM are most of the time referring to A4 paper in Europe and letter paper in the United States.steganography The speed of early printers was measured in units of characters per second. Epson. especially colour images. resulting in a 5-10% difference. and are not as well standardised as toner yields. Dell. IBM.

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