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INDIAN RAILWAY RESERVATION COUNTER

Presented ByNeha Singh(8) Roshni Roy (12) Sangya Singh(15)

IDENTIFICATION & DESCRIPTION OF WORKSTATION


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The Indian Railways computerized Passenger Reservation System (PRS) facilitates booking and cancelling of tickets from the terminals (i.e PRS booking windows) all over the country. The workstation chosen for our study: Hi-Tec City Railway Station, Hyderabad. There were five ticket counters.

Nature of the Workstation: Sitting The reservation clerk uses the computer to get the details and get the print out of the ticket from the printer. The filled form is stacked in a pointed stand. There are drawers attached to the table for keeping files and money. Nature of the workstation w.r.t. the type of work: Normal

COMPONENTS
Raised Platform/Slab Ticket Window Table Chair Computer System(Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse & C.P.U.) Printer Drawers Attached to the table Cupboards Paper weight for the filled forms Telephone

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE EXISTING LAYOUT


Physical Problem Psychological Problem Physiological Problem

PHYSICAL PROBLEMS
FACTORS
1. REACH

CAUSES
Moving forward to give the tickets to the customer Reaching sideways to tear the ticket from the printer. Twisting the back to tear the ticket

PROBLEM
RSI Neck pain, Shoulder pain, Back pain, Generalized fatigue

2. TWIST

RSI Back Pain, Shoulder Pain

3.BEND

To open the drawers

RSI Shoulder Pain, Back Pain


MSD Neck Pain, Back Pain

4.STATIC POSTURE

To be in a fixed posture for prolonged hours.

5.REPETITIVE

The motions are

RSI

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
Psychology is about the theory of the human mind. FACTOR
1. STRESS

CAUSES
Caused by the noisy environment, requirements of the customers for the seats, personal factors.

PROBLEMS
Personality disorder, mental disorder

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
Physiological problems occur when the body is required to do too much work, to work awkwardly or to work under bad environmental conditions.

FACTOR 1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

CAUSE Caused due to the vibration, noise, heat & cold. Ventilation was not proper.

PROBLEMS Fatigue, pain & numbness

EFFECT ON MAN, MACHINE & ENVIRONMENT: POTENTIAL HAZARDS

(1)M

(5)MER (4)MMR (7)MM ES (2)M

(6)MER

(3)E

(1)M-Man (2)M-Machine (3)E-Environment (4)MMR-Man-Machine Relationship (5)MER-Man Environment Relationship (6)MER-Machine-Environment Relationship (7)MMES- Man-MachineEnvironment Relationship

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
1.Machine-Man:

CONT.

Monitors was placed too far away from booking clerk, which caused awkward body positions & strain on the eyes. This can fatigue the eyes and place stress on the torso because the operator had to lean forward, backrest is no longer providing support. Working with the head and neck turned to the side for a prolonged period while using the computer and printer loads neck muscles unevenly and increases fatigue and pain. Bifocal users typically view the monitor through the bottom portion of their lenses. This causes them to tilt the head backward to see a monitor that may otherwise be appropriately placed.

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
2. Environment-Man:

CONT.

Ventilation- The ventilation was inadequate, as there were no windows and air conditioner. Noise- Noise of the dot-matrix printer, train horns and announcements made on the station can cause stress, which tenses your muscles and increases injury risks. Vibration: Caused due to the arrival/departure of the trains on the station. Light: Light was inadequate in the office, which caused strain on the eyes. Cold: No heater were there, for cold/adverse climate. Heat: Air cooler was not in a working condition.

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
3. Man-Machine:

CONT.

Not using the machine a/c to standard or using it roughly(keyboard, mouse etc.). Not updating the system regularly. Not installing anti-virus for protecting the computer system from virus.

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
4. Environment-Machine:

CONT.

Electromagnetic fields caused by other electrical equipment located near computer workstations, which can result in display quality distortions may lead to eye strain. ; and Dust accumulation, which is accelerated by magnetic fields associated with computer monitors and can reduce contrast and degrade viewing conditions.

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
5.Man-Environment:

CONT.

Insufficient working area according to the number of booking clerks. Proper cleaning of the workplace is not done.

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
6.Machine-Environment:

CONT.

Hot air coming out of the computer system which eventually heats the environment. Noise pollution caused due to the dot-matrix printer.

SUGGESTIONS FOR MODIFICATION

MODIFIED LAYOUT
The new layout can be modified in accordance to problems faced in the existing layout. We looked for the ergonomic factors which could suit the man, machine and environment based on the questionnaire. The components and the workplace arrangement were ergonomically designed & suggested to improve the quality of work and also increasing users comfort and morale.

SUGGESTION FOR CHANGE IN THE COMPONENTS


Table: The two table used previously was suggested to be changed and a new table was designed keeping the ergonomics in consideration. The clerk had to allow his wrists and forearms to rest on the sharp-edged surface; which give dangerous amounts of pinpoint pressure on soft tissues that are very sensitive. Hence, table edges should be made curved.

The shape of the table should be changed to a continuous table as shown in the diagram. The width of the table should be reduced to 2 ft taking into account the reach of the of the under to the window. The height of the table is 2.5 ft The Printer was suggested to be kept beside the system and within the reach of the user so that he does not have to twist his back.

Chair: An ergonomically designed revolving chair was suggested to be used that is lightly padded or upholstered. Adjustable height Having a foot and arm rest Support for the lumbar spinal column Automatic regulation of backrest and seat to retain an ideal angle

Monitor:

Position should be 18-30 from the eyes and directly in front of the user. Screen should not be placed higher than the eye level. With head and neck in neutral positions, it should be kept parallel to the face.

The screen should be cleaned.


Anti-glare screen should be used.

Keyboard: Ergonomically designed keyboards can keep the wrists in neutral and minimize MSDs like carpal tunnel syndrome.

Wrist Rest: It should be used when restingnot while keying. Use of padded wrist rests can minimize pressure on soft tissues.

Mouse: The mouse should fit in the hand of the user. The user should use Padded gel-type mouse wrist rests which is especially helpful and comfortable.

TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY


The air humidity should be between 40 (sometimes 50) and 65 percent and should be checked regularly. The room temperature should be 20 to 22 C. In summer, the temperature should be 26 C at the most. An air conditioner should be individually adjustable. It should be serviced regularly.

ATMOSPHERE

The windows should be able to be opened and have sunshades to avoid glare effects Plants can improve room conditions and are therefore recommended in all cases. They increase the relative humidity and filter pollutants from the air.

NOISE

Workstations should be equipped with partitions, sound-absorbing floors, appropriately wallpapered walls, curtains, and other sound-reducing features. Loud working equipment, such as dot-matrix printers, should be installed in sound-absorbing cases. If economical, laser printers or desk jet printer can be used , which produces less noise.

LIGHTING

Ceiling lights should emit light diagonally from above. Lighting strips should be set perpendicular to the screen. The line of sight at the screen should thus run parallel to the lighting strips.

The built-in antiglare facilities should be variable. Under no circumstances should artificial illumination cause reflex glare on the screen.

OTHER SUGGESTIONS
Drinking water should be available Job rotation and small intervals in between. Medical facilities should be provided with regular checkups Incentives, bonus and casual leaves should be provided. Use of new and advanced database and software to make it user-friendly. Minimize the use of keyboard and maximize the use of mouse and touch screen. Washroom should be clean & hygienic and nearby.

OTHER SUGGESTIONS

Tea-break should given at every fixed interval so as to prevent the stress from Repetitive Motions and Fixed Posture. Daylight, colours and music can be used dynamically in the workplace to provide safety, productivity, mood elevation and psychological wellbeing. It can elevate performance.

CONCLUSION
For our Assignment, we looked over the problems in the workstation. And tried to ergonomically improvise it in accordance with the man, material and environment. We learnt how to apply principles of ergonomics in real life situation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.ncsu.edu/ehs/www99/right/handsMan/office/ergonomic.html
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/computerworkstations/components_c hair.html http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/subjects/manualhandling/workstat ions/index.htm http://www.ronjones.org/Handouts/Ergonomics.pdf http://ehs.okstate.edu/modules/ergo/Station.htm http://www.ergoindemand.com/computer-workstation-ergonomics.htm http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/computerworkstations/components_ monitors.html http://www.effectivemeetings.com/design/ergonomics/workstation.asp http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/computerworkstations/checklist.html

THANK YOU!!