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Energy Consumption Benchmarking of a Swarm Intelligence Inspired MANET Protocol

Under the guidance of: Mr. Keshav Singh Project Team: Shashant Kumar Vibhooti Gupta Mohit Bansal Eeshan Srivastava

Conceptual Overview
Inherent Energy consumption problem of MANETs in practical applications Swarm Intelligence provides a solution: ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) Small ant packets collect network state by Stigmergy Pheromone tables are built using this information

Continued
We follow a global optimization approach Goal is to find paths that cost least energy in the long run Compare performance of this protocol with existing Ad-Hoc routing protocols: AODV DSDV DSR

Previous Semester Work


Researched various MANET protocols Designed an implementable version of the ant-based protocol Learned NS-2 simulation environment for wired and wireless topologies Simulated the following on NS-2: Distance Vector Routing Queuing AODV (small scale)

Packet classes and structures Data packets: represent the


information that end users exchange with each other. Forward and Backward ants: are control packets used to update the routing tables and distribute information about traffic load in the network. Broadcast Ants: every node broadcasts remaining energy level using this packet.

Project Development Files


packet.cc Class basic_ant defines the structure for an ant packet: -> source_add (nsaddr_t) -> dest_add (nsaddr_t) -> packet length (int) -> packet seq_number (int) -> packet start_time (double) Classes for F-ants and B-ants derived from the class basic_ant Methods for adding new nodes and keeping track of visited nodes

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router.cc Its main class is derived from class Agent which is the base class for all routing agents in ns2. It contains: reinforcement factor timer for generation of F-ants methods generate F-ants and B-ants send F-ant to next hop as determined by

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pheromone.cc class for storing pheromone values ph value (double) next node address (nsaddr_t) methods to add and remove entry method to return pheromone value routingtable.cc method to increment and evaporate pheromone values methods to add and delete pheromone tables.

Simulation Environment Integration of protocol into NS-2 by


adding definitions in NS-2 environment files such as packet.cc, cmu-trace.cc, nslib.tcl etc. Traffic Model Generation: 50 nodes with CBR sources (UDP) Max 10 connections at 8kbps Mobility Model Generation 50 nodes, pause-time 0 sec Max speed 20m/s 500x500 topology Simulation Time: 100 seconds

Screenshots
Ant Protocol

AODV

DSR

DSDV

Trace File Analysis


Awk filters for extracting energy & timing values Gnuplot for plotting graph 4 data sets were used: AODV energy values DSDV energy values DSR energy values Ant Protocol Energy values Snippet of Ant Protocol trace file:

Graphs
Full Resolution (Approx 14000 sampling positions

Graphs
Magnified to 2 sec interval

Energy Simulation Time -----

Results: Benchmark
R/S efficiency: 1.DSR with 99.82% (1123/1125) 2.AODV with 98.74% (1099/1113) 3. Ant Protocol with 88.43% (1001/1132) 4.DSDV with 75.78% (851/1123) Energy Efficiency: 1.DSDV 2.Ant Protocol 3.AODV 4.DSR

Research Paper and References C. Srisathapornphat and

C.-C. Shen. Swarm Intelligence-Inspired Energy Conservation Scheme in Ad Hoc Networks. The 3rd Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems Mobility 2006, Pg 1-7 E. Bonabeau, M. Dorigo, and G. Theraulaz. Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems. Oxford University Press, New York, 1999. www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/