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Introduction Japanese Management American Management Indian Management Chinese Management

Management style reflects culture of management Management styles ought to influence traits of managers Why nation Specific Management Styles? Because each and every nation has specific Demand Resources Necessities Work culture constraints

Characteristics Self Image

Typical Japanese Belong to a group. Okay to show feelings & weaknesses

Nationalism Education Social cooperation & willingness to work together

Attitude toward work

Strong sense of Nationalism Rigorous system through high school Team players. No stars allowed. The individual is not important
Self sacrifice. Highly self disciplined. High tolerance for personal discomfort. Decline vacation & sick days Everyones job is to keep it clean. Respect for others Loyal to company. Company first. Individual & family second.

Attitude work place, property & environment Loyalty

Workers suggestion Employment Training

Typical Japanese
Way to achieve continuous improvement (KAIZEN) Lifetime. Paternalistic. No layoffs. Promote from within Use cross training & job rotation to develop HR as a competitive weapon Group appraisal and praise. Profit sharing. Charts or boards over work stations show goals & current rate of achievement. Dress code to promote team spirit. Workers participation expected to reach consensus decisions. Accessibility to workers. Wear same uniform. Open office policy in plant


Participation in decisions

Managers accessibility

Not single day should go by without some kind of improvement being made somewhere Customer driven strategy for improvement -any management activity should eventually lead to increased customer satisfaction Quality first, not profit first- an enterprise can prosper only if customers who purchase its products or services are satisfied. Problem solving is seen as cross-functional systematic & collaborative approach. Emphasis on process- establishing a way of thinking oriented at improving processes and a management system that supports and acknowledges peoples process-oriented efforts for improvement.

Policy Area Overall focus Operating strategy Inventory & other resources Quality Control Vendors & Customers

Typical Japanese Long range focus on competitive strategy Continuous improvement (KAIZEN) JIT, Squeeze out waste. Reduction of MUDA, MURA & MURI TQC, seek perfection, zero defects, use as strategic weapon. Long term partnerships. Frequent deliveries, few vendors


Design in house to maintain technological leadership. Replace parts before they break
Emphasize cooperation, promote team approach. No strike policy Small focused plants

Union Production

Policy Area
Overall Reporting Strategy

Typical Japanese
Used to influence behaviour, emphasize on non financial measurements of strategy activities with charts on wall Goal setting & feedback. Worker involvement. Plan, Do, Check, Action Approach (PDCA) Long-term perspective. Emphasis on growth, influencing market share, flexibility customer needs & business unit inter relationships

Planning and control

Investment Justification

Is based on top-down decision Making, where company policy change after there is a change in leadership. Emphasis on knowledge management

Characteristic Self image Nationalism Education

Social Cooperation and willingness to work Together Respect for authority Attitude toward work Attitude toward work-place, property and environment. loyalty

American Management Individual, macho Strong sense of nationalism Normal System through high school
Competitive. Engage in political power plays to become stars. Normal Little Self discipline, low tolerance for personal discomfort Self centered Average

Policy or Attitude Workers Suggestion


American management Not considered much valuable

Revolving door. Workers laid off during economic decline Use other firms training programs as leverage by scavenging workers Mostly monetary Pseudo participation Aloof


Incentives Participation in decisions Managers accessibility

Policy Area
Overall Focus Operating Strategy Inventory and other resources

American Management
On bottom line Optimize with a given set of Constraint Keeps lots of slack inventory and resources. Highly specialized jobs based on scientific management Inspect for optimum level of defects No special relationship. Obtain price from multiple vendors Burn turn key systems as a form of leverage. Maintenance discretionary Large plants for production

Quality control Vendors and Customers Equipment


Policy Area

American Management

Overall reporting Strategy

Used to inform Management. Emphasis on Financial Measurements Top down. Roll down Financial budgets to lower levels

Planning and control


Short run production costs

Investment justification

Cost variances, labor efficiency, machine utilization. Meet due dates.

Indian management is paternalistic and is characterized as: Patronage Family feelings Sense of security in staff Obedience to authority Personality Cult Aversions of the staff to the leaders who are outsiders Personality based delegation Ascent on short term rather than long term planning Gulf between personnel policies and practices. Restricted sharing of information.

After opening of the Indian Economy in 1991, the following transformation occurred: Competition increased tremendously Competitors from all over the world enter Indian market Competition from low wage market Environmentalism and growing importance of stakeholders

Management Practices

Traditional Indian management

Contemporary Indian Management

Employee requirements

Family relation and caste Relevant educational memberships of employees background and have to be considered experience matching task requirements

Leadership Style

Organizational leaders display high level of personal involvement with subordinates

Work is viewed as a means to an end i.e. for the sake of satisfying family needs

Participative Leadership Style. Personal involvement is reduced

Motivational aspects and rewards

Elements such as job rotation, enrichment, autonomy and competitive salaries are increasingly considered Objective selection criteria, training programmes and

HRM Practices

Nepotism and caste considerations affect selection and

management style tends towards the directive, with the senior manager giving instructions to their direct reports who in turn pass on the instructions down the line. It is not expected that subordinates will question the decisions of superiors - that would be to show disrespect and be the direct cause of loss of face (mianzi) for all concerned

manager should be seen as a type of father figure the manager is expected to take an holistic interest in the well-being of those colleagues Senior managers will often have close relations to the Communist Party, decisions are likely to be scrutinized by the party

Try and work out the management structure of the Chinese organization. Carry plenty of business cards to distribute. All documentation should be presented in both Chinese and English. Language should be kept as straightforward as possible to assist the interpreter. Corporate gift giving is an expected part of the Chinese business scene. Make sure the gifts take the form of objects and not money