Consumer Behavior

Behavioral Learning

Learning Concepts
 Behavioral Learning: Classical & Operant Conditioning  Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning  Neo-Pavlovian Classical Conditioning  Positive vs Negative Reinforcement  Schedule of Reinforcement  Relationship between discriminative stimulus, the behavior and the reinforcer  Strategic Applications of Conditioning Theories  Observational & Social Learning

Figure 3-1: The Consumer As a “Black Box”: A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning

Vicarious or Observational learning .Behavioral Learning  The process in which experience with the environment leads to relatively permanent change in behavior or potential for such change  It does not take into account for changes in physiology due to growth. disease or those induced by drugs  Three major approaches to Behavioral learning 1. injury. Operant Conditioning 3. Classical Conditioning 2.

Classical Conditioning  Previously neutral stimulus. After number of such pairing. is repeatedly paired with eliciting stimulus called the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). the ability to elicit response is transferred to CS. called the conditioned stimulus (CS). The response elicited by CS is called the conditioned response .

Classical Conditioning Meat Powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) Saliva (Unconditioned response) Bell (Conditioned Stimulus) Meat Powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) Saliva (Unconditioned Response) Bell (Conditioned Stimulus) Saliva (Conditioned response) .

Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus 9 o’clock news AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS Conditioned Stimulus 9 o’clock news Conditioned Response Salivation .

Credit card buying Sign tracking: The attention drawing ability of unconditioned and conditioned stimuli Higher order conditioning: the ability of a conditioned stimulus to condition another previously neutral stimulus .Classical Conditioning in Consumers 1. Pairing of pictures of beautiful landscape and fictitious tooth paste 3. Tempo of Music playing in Grocery store and restaurants 2.

Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning  Forward Conditioning (CS Precedes US)  Repeated Pairings of CS and US  A CS and US that Logically Belong to Each Other  A CS that is Novel and Unfamiliar  A US that is Biologically or Symbolically Salient .

Symbolic Pairing of CS and UCS .

Symbolic Pairing of CS and UCS .

with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process. .

Skinner – Positive Reinforcement – Negative Reinforcement – Punishment .Behavioral Learning Theories  Instrumental Conditioning – Instrumental Conditioning  B.F.

A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Try Brand A Try Brand B Try Brand C Unrewarded Legs too tight Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat Stimulus Situation (Need goodlooking jeans) Try Brand D Repeat Behavior Reward Perfect fit .

Operant Conditioning  A process in which frequency of occurrence of a behavior is modified by the consequences of that behavior Consequence of Contingent Application Reward ( something desirable) Positive Reinforcement Behavior increase Extinction or ommision Behavior Decreases Withdrawal Noxious Stimuli ( some thing undesirable) Punishment Behavior Decreases Negative Reinforcement Behavior increases .

Reinforcement  Negative  Positive Reinforcement: Reinforcement: Unpleasant or Positive outcomes negative outcomes that strengthen the that serve to likelihood of a encourage a specific specific response behavior  Example: Ad  Example: Ad showing showing beautiful wrinkled skin as hair as a reinforcement to buy reinforcement to buy skin cream shampoo .

but he or she does not know how many responses are required. Frequent flyer program Variable ratio reinforcement the person is reinforced after a certain number of responses. Fixed – interval reinforcement. Sale on the last day of the month Fixed-ratio reinforcement. People in such situations tend to respond at a very high and steady rates. This schedule motivates people to continue performing the same behavior over and over again. Reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses. Positive reinforcement is provided after fixed period of time has passed. 3. . Attraction to slot machines 2. this type of behavior is very difficult to distinguish.Schedules of Reinforcement 1.

Because the discriminative stimuli is invariably paired with reinforcer the likelihood of operant response occurring increases. The organism learns to emit the operant response when discriminative stimulus is present. . They are signals which indicate that the reinforcer will be given if desired behavior is emitted.Discriminative stimuli  Discriminative stimuli are stimuli that only occur in the presence of a reinforcer. and not emit when stimulus is absent.

Discriminative stimuli  The message and information that consumers receive about products and services are discriminative stimuli – that is they signal the reinforcements from purchase.  Discriminative stimuli are found in advertising. on product packaging. and in brand names  Companies with broad product lines usually prominently identify each product as member of the same family .

Relationship between discriminative stimulus. the behavior and the reinforcer Discriminative stimuli Behavior Reinforcer .

Strategic Applications of Conditioning Theories  Repetition  Stimulus Generalization  Stimulus Discrimination .

Ads by Lux. E. Sunsilk etc.Repetition  Repetition increases strength of associations and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wearout.g.  Cosmetic variations reduce satiation. .

E. Ding Dong Bubble  Individuals exposed to substantively varied ads process more information about product attributes and were also more resistant to change in the face of competitive attack .Substantive Variations  Changes in advertising content across different versions of an advertisement with no changes in cosmetic features.g.

Cosmetic Variations .

Three-Hit Theory  Repetition is the basis for the idea that three exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad to be effective  The number of actual repetitions to equal three exposures is in question. .

Stimulus Generalization The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli. .

Form and Category Extensions  Family Branding  Licensing  Generalizing Usage Situations .Stimulus Generalization and Marketing  Product Line.

Product Line Extension .

Product Form Extensions .

Product Category Extensions .

Shoe Manufacturer Licenses Its Name .

Stimulus Discrimination The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences. Positioning Differentiation .

Test drive ----------. Purchase of car---------.some small gift 3.outstanding service + rebate . loss leaders  Car dealers:1.Shaping  The reinforcement of behavior that must be performed before the desired behavior can be achieved  Shaping increases the probability that certain desired consumer behavior will occur  Retailers: Sampling. Encourage customers to visit their showrooms ----incentive to visit showroom 2.

they supply their own internal rewards and punishments by feeling either self critical or self satisfied . People have the ability to generate their own behavior. and through self regulatory process. View people as symbolic beings who foresee the probable consequences of their behavior and vary their behavior accordingly (Principles of cognitive learning) 2.Observational learning Observational learning. also called vicarious or social learning. Three important ideas have emerged from observational learning theory: 1. People learn by watching the actions of others and noticing the consequences of those actions ( behavioral learning) 3. refers to the phenomenon whereby people develop patterns of behavior by observing the actions of others.

Observational Learning Factors Influencing a Model’s Behavior: • The model is physically attractive • The model is credible • The model is successful • The model is similar to the observer • The model is shown overcoming difficulties and then succeeding .

Components of Observational Learning .

Consumers Learn by Modeling .

 Model’s action can be used to create entirely new types of behaviors Feature attractive and credible endorsers whose behavior will hopefully be emulated by often positively reinforced by having other people congratulate the model on his or her purchase A model can be used to decrease the likelihood that an undesired behavior will occur Model is shown being punished for engaging in a behavior e. In this type of ad the model’s behavior – using the product .Marketing Uses of Social learning Theory 1.  . anti-drug campaigns 2.g.

. Here the behavior of model acts as discriminative stimulus to tell consumers when behavior is appropriate. Enhance the likelihood that consumers will repeat an already learned behavior 4.Marketing Uses of Social learning Theory 3.

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