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PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY The National Center for Teacher Education Graduate Studies Quezon Campus Lopez, Quezon

R E AAND I S M L EDUCATION
MR. REJULIOS M. VILLENES
MA Ed. Educational Management

Ed 501: Philosophy of Education

Realism and Education


I. The Philosophy of Realism 1. Background and Meaning of Realism 2. The Central Thesis 3. The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets II. Chief Exponents of Realism 1. The Classical Realists 2. The Modern Realists 3. The Contemporary Realists

Realism and Education


III. Developing Realism in Education 1. Humanistic Realism in Education 2. Social Realism in Education 3. Sense Realism in Education 4. Neo-Realism in Education IV. New Realism vs Critical Realism: The New Perspectives V. Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Realism and Education


V. Realism in Education 1. Aims of Education 2. The Realists Curriculum 3. Methods of Teaching 4. Realism and the Teacher 5. Realism and the Child 6. School Organization Influenced by Realism VI. Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies

The Philosophy of Realism


BACKGROUND AND MEANING OF REALISM THE CENTRAL THESIS THE FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES AND MAIN TENETS

Background and Meaning of Realism

Nature of Realism

What is Realism?
Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief in a reality

that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Philosophers who profess realism also typically believe that truth consists in a belief's correspondence to reality. We may speak of realism with respect to other minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought. Realism believes in the world as it is. It is based on the view that reality is what we observe. It believes that truth is what we sense and observe and that goodness is found in the order of the laws of nature.

Background and Meaning of Realism


Realism

Nature of Realism

is a philosophy that things exist objectively: the theory that things such as universals, moral facts, and theoretical scientific entities exist independently of people's thoughts and perceptions. Realism was a revival of the Platonic doctrine that ideas are the only real things. The formula for it was "Universalia ante rem." By it, the general name preceded that of the species. Universal concepts represent the real; all else is merely illustrative of the real. (Blackmar, 1926)

Background and Meaning of Realism


Realism explains that reality exists independent

Nature of Realism

of the human mind. The ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. The focus is on the body/objects. Truth is objective what can be observed. Realism also exerts that everything must be explained by mind and matter. (Haanel, 2006) Realism is the claim that a real world exists independent of our perceptions. Realism is sometimes put into contrast with Idealism, which claims that the world has no real existence independent of our ideas.

Nature of Realism
The Central Thesis

The Central Thesis The most central thread of realism is what can be called the principle or thesis of independence. Objects exist whether or not there is a human mind to perceive them.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

Fundamental Postulates 1. External world is the reality. 2. Man will discover reality with the use of science and common sense through education/learning. 3. Mind is functioning and is geared towards creativity. 4. Reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning. 5. Values must be studied to be applied in the actual setting.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

1. External world is the reality. External world is a solid reality, whether known or unknown to man. Reality is already in existence and in the invention of man. It exists independently of being known to perceived by, or related to mind. Man can only comprehend it, through senses. One should dip below the surface to know the reality.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

2. Man will discover reality with the use of science and common sense through education/learning. Realism places great premium on Man and human endeavor, which it says, should be combined with science and common-sense. It, however, asserts that Man is finite' and learning is necessary for a finite man. Education is the process by which he lifts himself up to the external. "The Realists wish man to be a man of affairs, practical and always seeker of deeper and deeper truth and reality.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

3. Mind is functioning and is geared towards creativity. The realist say that Mind' like any other material thing has mechanical functioning. They discount its creating ability. "Just as any object of universe can be true' or false' similarly mind is also true' or false'. The development of mind is the part of the process of development of the world."

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

Mind is what it studies' (Herbert). If this concept of the realists is accepted in education then we are forced to believe that children's mind are mere cameras to register the reality of the universe. Philosophers say that mind has lot of scope for enrichment elevation and creativity.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

4. Reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning. Realism tries to build up a body of systematized knowledge, which is certain and objective and agrees with the standpoint of physical sciences. It says that every reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

For them, experience is the touchstone of what is real. Whenever the simple and direct experience can't determine the objective truth, the common sense puts its truth in scientific research. In the present world of falling idols and falling ideals, the realists emphasize the role of intelligence as great significant, as it formulates the concepts and develops general and abstract ideas.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

5. Values must be studied to be applied in the actual setting. The realists of all brands aver that values are permanent and objective and say that although institutions and practices vary a great deal, the fundamental values of society should not change. The children should be taught those values, which have proved enduring throughout history. They should be taught the nature of right' and wrong' and what is objectively good and beautiful.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

General Postulate In brief, Realism believes in the usefulness of the world and the material existence in its field of action. It believes that whatever is real is independent. Whatever it is, it exists. Its presence of existence does not depend upon the knower (vs. the idealist's standpoint. ) The individual doesn't make reality, he only discovers it.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

Main Tenets 1. Realism believes in the world which we see of perceive to be real. 2. Realists believe in the present life. 3. They believe that the truth of life and aim of life are in the development from the present unsystematic life. 4. Knowledge is real and can be assimilated by the human beings. 5. The realists distinguish between appearance' and reality'.

The Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets

Nature of Realism

Main Tenets 6. The realists distinguish between appearance' and reality'. 7. Realism believes that there is an objective reality apart from that which is presented to the consciousness.

Chief Exponents of Realism


CLASSICAL REALISTS MODERN REALISTS CONTEMPORARY REALISTS

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Chief Exponents of Realism 1. Classical Realists a. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)


Aristotle believed in the direct observation of nature, and in science he taught that theory must follow fact. He considered philosophy to be the discerning of the self-evident, changeless first principles that form the basis of all knowledge. Logic was for Aristotle the necessary tool of any inquiry, and the syllogism was the sequence that all logical thought follows. He introduced the notion of category into logic and taught that reality could be classified according to several categories substance (the primary category), quality, quantity, relation, determination in time and space, action, passion or passivity, position, and condition.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Aristotle explained that A tree can exist without matter, but no matter can exist without form. Question: How can a tree exist without matter how is that possible? Answer: Before they were made, they started as an idea in someone's head and it did not exist. Logical Explanation: A chair can exist in someone's head; you can sit on a chair but not on an idea of a chair.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Aristotle also explained that each object had its own soul that directs it in the right way. Statement: A kitten is a kitten is a kitten. A kitten will grow into a cat but it will never become a tree. Principle: Design and order are present in the universe.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

He added that the most important thing we can ask about objects is about their purposes. Question: What is the purpose of humanity? Answer: Because humans are the only creatures endowed with the ability to think, their purpose is to use this ability.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

We achieve our true purpose when we think, and we go against this when we do not think or do not think intelligently. We can avoid thinking by not paying attention or by misdirecting our thinking. When we refuse to think, we go against the design of the universe and the reason for our creation. We suffer the consequences of erroneous ideas, poor health, and an unhappy life.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Sometimes when we think erroneously, we go to extremes. Aristotles Golden Mean (a path between extremes) The person who follows a true purpose leads a rational life of moderation, avoiding extremes: the extremes of too little or too much.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Aristotle also taught that knowledge of a thing, beyond its classification and description, requires an explanation of causality , or why it is. He posited four causes or principles of explanation: 1. Material cause (the substance of which the thing is made); 2. Formal cause (its design); 3. Efficient cause (its maker or builder); and, 4. Final cause (its purpose or function). In modern thought the efficient cause is generally considered the central explanation of a thing, but for Aristotle the final cause had primacy.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists
The Material Cause: the matter from which something is made The Formal Cause: the design that shapes the material object The Efficient Cause: the agent that produces the object The Final Cause: the direction toward which the object is tending Example: Material Cause would be: wood, bricks, and nails Formal Cause would be: the sketch or blueprint Efficient Cause would be: the carpenter who builds it Final Cause would be: is that it is a place in which to live; a house

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Like his teacher, Aristotle is also concerned with logic. The logical method he developed was the syllogism, which was his method for testing the truth of statements such as: Deductive All men are mortal Rejulios is a man Therefore, Rejulios is mortal. Inductive Dr. Avila is mortal. Dr. Ogayon is mortal. Dr. Villaseor is mortal. All three are men. Men are mortal.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

Aristotelian Influence Recognizing the need to study nature Using logical processes to examine the external world Organizing things into hierarchies Emphasizing the rational aspects of human nature

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) He incorporated Greek ideas into Christianity by showing Aristotle's thought to be compatible with church doctrine. In his system, reason and faith (revelation) form two separate but harmonious realms whose truths complement rather than oppose one another.
b.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

First encountered the work of Aristotle while studying in Naples Attempted to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Christian doctrines Became a leading authority on Aristotle in the Middle Ages Author of De Magistro (On the Teacher) and Summa Theologica God made it possible to acquire true knowledge so that we may know Him better.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

He pursued a lifelong passion to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity. He accepted Aristotle's view that a human has matter and a mind OR a body and a soul.

Aristotle believed that our highest good comes through thinking. Aquinas took this to mean that because we are children of God, our best thinking should agree with Christian tenets.

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Classical Realists

St. Aquinas Beliefs God is the Ultimate Teacher; only God can touch the soul. A teacher can only 'point' the way to knowledge. Teaching is a way to serve humankind; it is part of God's work. Leading the student from ignorance to enlightenment is one of the greatest services one person can give to another. The soul possesses an inner knowledge. The major goal of education was the perfection of the human being and the ultimate reunion of the soul with God. (parallel with the Final Cause)

Chief Exponents of Realism


The Modern Realists
2. Modern Realists a. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
In

Novum Organum, he challenged Aristotelian logic. He believed that science was 'delayed' by Aristotelian thinking

Past thinking flawed due to theological dogmatism and

prior assumptions which led to false deductions Science must be concerned with inquiry and not preconceived notions. Science is a tool for creating new knowledge. Originator of the expression: Knowledge is Power

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Modern Realists
He believed we should analyze all previously accepted knowledge and we should rid ourselves of the four idols that we 'bow down' before:
Idol of the Den (beliefs due to limited experience)

Idol of the Tribe (believing because most people believe)


Idol of the Marketplace (beliefs due to misuse of words) Idol of the Theatre

(subjective beliefs colored by religion and personal philosophy)

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Modern Realists
b. John Locke (1632-1704)
Oxford scholar; medical researcher, physician No such things as innate ideasmind at birth is

a tabula rasa First great English empiricist All ideas are acquired from sources independent of the mind, through experience. Authored Some Thoughts Concerning Education Influenced the later writings of Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison (Wikipedia, 2007) The little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies have very important and lasting consequences."

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Contemporary Realists
3. Contemporary Realists

Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russell Both born in England Collaborated on mathematical writings Eventually came to teach in the United States Both wrote about education Co-authored Principia Mathematica

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Contemporary Realists
a.

Alfred Whitehead (1861-1947) Led to philosophy through the study of mathematics at age 63 Tried to reconcile some aspects of Idealism with Realism Process is central to his philosophyreality is a process. Philosophy is a search for a pattern in the universe The most important things to be learned are ideas. Education should be concerned with living ideasideas connected to the experience of learners. Preferred Realism because it helped people correct the excesses of subjective thought.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Contemporary Realists
b. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) Student of Alfred Whitehead Taught at Cambridge, the University of

California Imprisoned for pacifist activities Founded a school called Beacon Hill Two kinds of reality: hard data and soft data Education is key to a better way; we should be using our knowledge to erase some of the ills of society.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Contemporary Realists
c. Hilary Putnam (1926- )
Taught at Northwestern, MIT, and finally

Harvard The changes in science influence the philosophy of realism Coined the term 'internal realism' Physicists have introduced a 'cut' between the observer and the universe. The universe is too large and too complex for us to understand. Forced to observe universe with our own limited resources. Science will continue to influence the philosophy of realism

Realism in the Historical Context of Education


The Contemporary Realists
d. John R. Searle (1932-) Accepts the traditional view of Realism Coined the term 'social reality' Does reality in the universe just consist

of physical particles and fields of force? Social reality created by human consciousness

Developing Realism in Education


HUMANISTIC REALISM SOCIAL REALISM SENSE REALISM NEO-REALISM IN EDUCATION

Developing Realism in Education


Humanistic Realism

Humanistic Realism (Verbal Realism)


Humanistic realism is the reaction against the emphasise on form and style of the old classical literature. It has great regard for the ancient literature but it emphasizes the study of content and ideas in the ancient classical literature to understand one's present social life and environment. The aim is not to study the form and style of old literature to have mastery over it. The study of old literature is a means to understand the practical life. History, Geography, Kautilyas Arthashastra are the subjects and books should be studied for this purpose. Erasmus (14461537 ), Rabelais (1483-1553), John Milton (1608-1674) were the supporters of this faculty.

Developing Realism in Education


Social Realism

Social Realism
Social Realism in education is the reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of affairs i.e. practice. Education should not produce men who are unfit in social life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world. Michael de Montaigne (1533-1592) was the main supporter of this faculty.

Developing Realism in Education


Sense Realism

Sense Realism (Scientific Realism)


The sense realism in education emphasizes the training of the senses. Senses are the gateways of knowledge and learning takes place the operation of the senses. According to sense-realists, nature is the treasure house of all knowledge and this knowledge can be obtained through the training of the senses. The sense-realists emphasized the three things : a. Application of inductive method formulated by Bacon in order to organize and simplify the instructional process

Developing Realism in Education


Sense Realism

b. To replace instruction in Latin by the instruction in Vernacular c. To substitute new scientific and social studies in place of the studies in language and literature.
Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611), Francis Bacon (15611626), Ratke (1571 to 1635) and Comenius (1592-1670) were the supporters of this faculty.

Developing Realism in Education


Sense Realism

Neo-Realism
Neo-Realism is really a philosophical thought. It appears the methods and results of modern development in physics. They do not consider the scientific principles everlasting while they express the changeability in them. They support the education of art with the science and analytical system of education with the humananistic feelings. They consider living and non-living things all objective to be organs and the development of organs is the main objective and all round development of the objects is the main characteristic of education. Bertrand Russel and Whitehead were the supporters of this faculty.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change


VERBAL REALISM SOCIAL REALISM SENSE REALISM

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Realism played a great role in changing the trend during the medieval times. The term educational realism came into existence to specify the particular application of realism in the field of education. Educational realism came into the scene as a protest against the excessive formalism of the humanists and the religious reformers. According to Wilds and Lottich (1970), realism is focused with the actualities of life and this is too much needed during the said advent.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

The spirit of renaissance, Protestant Reformation, and the scientific discoveries caused intellectual activities inclined in Realism. Important works influenced by Realism are as follows: Heliocentric theory of Copernicus (14741642); Laws of Motion and Mechanics of Kepler (1571-1630) and Galileo (1564-1642); and, Law of Gravity of Newton.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism

Verbal Realism (Literary Realism)


Verbal realists believed that classical literature should be studied not for its beauty but for the information and the knowledge of the facts of the pasts so that such knowledge could be used for the preparation for practical living.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism

Aims of Verbal Realism


1. Complete knowledge and understanding of environment to understand what is human society including its motives, nature, institutions, and relations among man and nature 2. Development of values Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540); education should develop personality, Christian virtues, competence in business, and above all are religion morality and use; learning and knowledge should be put into good use 3. Development of whole man Francois Rabelais (14831553); learning is for the formation of complete man, skilled in art and industry; development of physical, moral and intellectual aspect of man

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism
4. For actual living John Milton (1608-1674); one which fits a man to perform justly, skilfully, and magnanimously the offices, both private and public, of peace and war. 5. To study words (through reading) in order to understand the world in which we live and how to adjust it.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism

Kinds of Education
1. Literary education; 2. Practical education; and, 3. Liberal education

Curriculum and Content

1. Vives study of vernacular as a national language and Latin as a universal language Lower schools Math, Natural and Physical Sciences, Literature and Philosophy, History and Geography Higher schools technical and professional studies such as Law, Theology, Medicine, Architecture, Political Science, and Warfare For women vernacular, Latin, religion, moral conduct, rearing of children and housekeeping

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism
2. Rabelais comprehensive curriculum; physical exercises, sports and games, the Bible and religious exercises, instrumental music, intellectual readings from ancient literature in Science, Math, History and Astronomy, and Literature in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Arabic Languages 3. Milton study of ancient learning and classics in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syrian, and Italian; Natural Science, Social Science, Philosophy, Morality, Religion, and Physical Education for the Military

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism

Educational Institutions
1. Home 2. Public Day School Vives 3. The Academy Milton; private secondary school today 4. University for higher learning and higher courses

Methods of Instruction
1. Tutorial Rabelais; living with a private teacher to maximize time 2. Individualized teaching Vives; teaching will be based on students skills, intelligence and traits

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Verbal Realism
3. Incidental method Rabelais; everyday lessons should be based on experiences met in everyday life 4. Reasoning substituted for memorization; for critical analysis 5. Reading widely and thoroughly for content not for studying syntax; reading for discussion 6. Travel Milton; field experiences

Contribution to Education
Practical education that would enable man to adjust himself to his environment.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Social Realism

Social Realism
An aristocratic movement in the 16th and 17th centuries, Social realism explains that education should equip learners for a happy and successful life as a man of the world. The focus of this philosophical movement is on modern language, travel, and study of contemporary institutions. Michael de Montaigne (1533-1592) advocates social realism.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Social Realism

Aims of Social Realism


1. Pragmatic utilitarian education should prepare aristocratic youth for life of a gentleman and how to deal with the affairs of life 2. Decision-making to train the aristocratic youth to make sound and practical judgement, proper decisions and right choices 3. Social relations to prepare and train aristocratic youth to have the right relationships with his fellowmen to achieve joyful living with them

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Social Realism

Kinds of Education
1. Practical and social education 2. Physical, moral, and intellectual training

Curriculum and Content


1. History and Philosophy 2. Latin (language of educated gentleman) and French (for conversation at home) 3. Mathematics, good manners, military arts, and Geography (these subjects are usually added to the school curriculum)

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Social Realism

Educational Institutions
1. The Tutor Montaigne; for individual instruction and later adopted by the nobility 2. Academies these schools emphasizes the study of Mathematics, good manners, modern language and military science. 3. Ritterakademie these schools are established for the sons of the rich families; under the influence of French court life

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Social Realism

Methods of Instruction
1. Tutorial system one teacher taught one pupil 2. Travel to study foreign languages 3. Understanding and judgement this is used instead of memorization 4. Observation and social contracts 5. Application pupil activity is given emphasis; students independent thinking is encouraged

Contribution to Education
Tutorial system, finishing schools, private military academies

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Sense Realism (Scientific Realism)


Sense realism is the belief that the true reality is existing and it can be proved by the use of the concepts, forces and laws of nature. Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611), Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Wolfgang Ratke (1571-1635), and John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) are the known persons under this movement.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Aims of Sense Realism


1. Harmonious society Mulcaster; to develop childs natural tendencies and activities in accordance with natural and universal laws 2. Scientific Bacon; to increase the scientific knowledge of man about all things in his environment so that he can further utilize it 3. Religious, intellectual, and practical Comenius; to attain eternal happiness with God and to use the wealth of our knowledge 4. Scientific Method to develop a scientific method of teaching and learning according to natural laws operating in the mind of the learner

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Kinds of Education 1. Scientific type of learning 2. Liberal education 3. Religious and moral education 4. Practical type of training 5. Linguistic and intellectual education 6. Democratic and vernacular education

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Curriculum and Content 1. Mulcasters six-year elementary school boys and girls study reading, writing, vernacular, English, drawing and music, physical exercises and group sports 2. Ratkes lower three grades students study German vernacular and in higher grades with classical languages such as Hebrew, Greek and Latin; Music, Arithmetic, and religion are added 3. Bacon Science

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

4. Comeniuss curriculum to know all things, to do all things, to say all things Trivium and Quadrivium grammar, rhetoric, dialect, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music and in addition physics, geography, history with special importance (History is the eye of the mans whole life), and religion; Also included manual and industrial arts, language, and play activities; Content is drawn from the area of interests of the children; and, Curriculum principle one of continuity.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Educational Institutions 1. Model educational institution for scientific investigation designed by Bacon and became the forerunner of the modern research university 2. Six-year vernacular elementary school for boys and girls 3. Secondary schools and university 4. The School on the Mothers Knee Comenius; in every home 5. The Vernacular School - in every hamlet 6. Latin School in every city

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism
7. University in every province 8. College of Light Comenius; for advanced research 9. Textbook and Teachers important agencies of education; teacher training schools are founded 10. Pedagpoium secondary school for science and language 11. Seminar for training teachers 12. University emphasizing scientific studies Francke; advance study of science 13. Realschule Julius Hecker; secondary school established in Berlin where curriculum is dominated by pure and applied science

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Methods of Instruction 1. Knowledge comes through the senses and that the order of learning must be things, thoughts, words. 2. Mulcaster Children must be studied thoroughly and their innate abilities respected; and, Make use of games, play, and exercises for learning purposes.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

3. Bacon use of inductive method of learning 4. Ratke a. All learning should follow the course of nature; b. Learning should be only one thing at a time; c. Everything should be learned first in the mother tongue; d. Repetition should be done as often as possible; e. Learning should be without compulsion; f. Nothing is to be learned by rote; g. Similar subjects must be taught the same way;

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

h. Learning should be by induction and experimentation; and, i. Learning by the senses should precede exploration. 5. Comenius a. Education should appeal to the childs natural interests; b. Learning starts from the sense; c. Whatever is learned must be of practical value; d. General principles should be explained first and details follow

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

e. All things should be taught in succession and only one at a time; f. A subject should not be left unless thoroughly mastered; g. Learning should proceed from the known to the unknown; h. Children should learn to do by doing i. Words must not be repeated j. Instruction should be fitted to the childs understanding; k. Senses, memory, imagination, and understanding should be exercised daily; and, l. Learning, to be effective, must be in vernacular.

Realism in the Historical Context of Education: The Radical Change

Sense Realism

Contribution to Education 1. The emphasis on Science in the curriculum, as well as the teaching of Science by the laboratory method; 2. Several methods of teaching which is proven effective; 3. Use of vernacular in teaching and development of textbooks; 5. The internal administrative organization of a school and the ladderized system of grade level organization; and, 6. Emphasis on the training of the teachers and the establishment of training schools for teachers.

New Realism vs Critical Realism: The New Perspectives

New Realism vs Critical Realism: The New Perspectives


The new realist and the critical realist can be distinguished based on their view of knowledge. The new realist holds a presentational view of knowledge, whereas the critical realist holds a representational view of it. The position of the new realist is that we know the real object as it exists. When one perceives something, it is the same thing that exists in the real world. This mind becomes the relationship between the subject and the object. This is the presentational view of knowledge.

New Realism vs Critical Realism: The New Perspectives


The critical realist takes a different view of knowledge, one which seems better able to account for errors in perception. The critical realist felt than man could not know the world directly, but only through certain vehicles or essences. Thus, objects are not present to consciousness but are represented. Their position is a representational view. This means that although something exists in reality, our knowledge is not of it, but a representation of it.

Realism in Education
AIMS OF EDUCATION THE REALISTS CURRICULUM METHODS OF TEACHING REALISM AND THE TEACHER R E A L I S M A N D T H E C H I L D S C H O O L O R G A N I Z AT I O N S INFLUENCED BY REALISM

Realism Applied in Education


Aims of Education

Aims of Education
Understanding the material world through inquiry
A study of science and the scientific method A need to know the world in order to ensure survival

Basic,

essential knowledge with a no-nonsense approach Intellectually-gifted student is a precious resource Should use the Great Books of the Western World Adler's Paideia Proposal: school should be a one-track system, general (non-specialized), and non-vocational

Realism Applied in Education


The Realists Curriculum

The Realists Curriculum


Problem-centered (subject-centered curriculum) Practical and useful Physical activity has educational value (Locke) Attention to the complete person (Locke) Extensive use of pictures (John Amos Comenius) Use of objects in education (Maria Montessori) Most effective way to find out reality is to study it

through organized, separate and systematically arranged matter emphasis on Science and Mathematics

Realism Applied in Education


The Realists Curriculum

The Realists Curriculum


Humanistic or Verbal Realism

The following curriculum design was drafted by Milton:


1st year Latin, grammar, arithmetic and geometry.

Reading of simple Latin and Greek. 2nd year Greek, agriculture, geography Natural philosophy, mathematics, engineering and architecture. In the next 5th year chief writings of the ancients in prose and poetry on these subjects. Remaining years Ethical instruction, Bible, Hebrew, Greek, Roman and Saxon Law, economics, politics, history, logic, rhetoric, poetry-all by reading select writhers.

Realism Applied in Education


The Realists Curriculum

The Realists Curriculum


Social Realism

Social realism was generally recommended for the people of the upper social class/strata. It combined literary elements with ideals of chivalric education. Naturally it included the study of literature, heraldry (the science dealing with coats of arms and the persons who have right to wear them), genealogy (science of the development of plants and animals from earlier forms), riding, fencing, gymnastics, study of modern languages and the customs and institutions of neighboring countries. Social realists follow the method of travel of journey method, which will give real experience of varied aspects of life improve knowledge and mental faculties.

Realism Applied in Education


The Realists Curriculum

The Realists Curriculum


Sense or scientific realism

Sense-realism attached more importance to the study of natural sciences and contemporary social life. Study of languages is not so significant as the study of natural sciences and contemporary life. Neo-realism Neo-realism gives stress on the subject physics and on humanistic feelings, physics and psychology, sociology, economics, Ethics, Politics, history, Geography, agriculture varied arts, languages and so on.

Realism Applied in Education


Methods of Teaching

Methods of Teaching
Not only facts, but method of arriving at facts Emphasis on critical reasoning through observation Supports formal ways of teaching Children should be given positive rewards (Locke) Precision and order: ringing bells, time periods, daily

lesson plans, pre-packaged curriculum materials Supports accountability and performance-based teaching Scientific research and development

Realism Applied in Education


Methods of Teaching
Most recent development: computer technology Methods used includes recitation, experimentation,

demonstration Education should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. Things before rules and words. Students to be taught to analyze rather than to construct. Vernacular to be the medium of instruction. The order of nature to be sought and followed.

Realism Applied in Education


Realism and the Teacher

Realism and the Teacher


1) A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places. 2) He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. 3) He must guide the student towards the hard realities of life. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist. 4) He must be able to expose children to the problems of life and the world around. 5) There should be a co-relation between utility in daily life and education.

Realism Applied in Education


Realism and the Teacher

Realism and the Teacher


6) The child should be told the utility of whatever is taught. 7) The simple rules should be defined. 8) All the subjects should be taught in proper order. 9) Various organs of education should be taught in chronological order. 10) The topic should not be given up unless the boys understand it well. 11) To find out the interest of the child and to teach accordingly.

Realism Applied in Education


Realism and the Child

Realism and the Child


1) Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit which has real existence. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. All these cannot be overlooked. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regard at the time of planning education. 2) Child can reach near reality through learning by reason. 3) Child has to be given as much freedom as possible.

Realism Applied in Education


Realism and the Child

Realism and the Child


4) The child is to be enabled to proceed on the basis of facts. 5) The child can learn only when he follows the laws of learning. 6) The child is to be understood a creature of the real world there is no sense in making him a God . He has to be trained to become a man only.

Realism Applied in Education


Realism and the Child

School Organization Influenced by Realism


1) School organization would be based on the real needs of society. It is not proper that a college should be established due to political pressure at a place when it is not needed. 2) The opening of science classes in every school is a must. Only academic and literary subjects are not sufficient to fulfill the needs of the society. 3) Realism doesn't oppose co-education. It is a natural happening so it can not be rejected. 4) School is the mirror of the society. It is a miniature form of society and it presents the real picture of the society

Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies

Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies


Categories
Philosophical -orientation
Theoreticalorientation Direction in Time Educational value Intellectualfocus

Traditional
Realism

Contemporary
Pragmatism
Reconstructio nism

Idealism and Pragmatism Realism

Perennia Progressiv Essentialism lism ism Preserving the past Fixed, absolute, objective Train, discipline the mind

Growth; reconstruct present, change society, shape future


Changeable, subjective, relative Engage in problem-solving, social tasks

Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies


Categories
Philosophical -orientation
Theoreticalorientation

Traditional
Realism

Contemporary
Pragmatism
Reconstructio nism

Idealism and Pragmatism Realism

Perennia Progressiv Essentialism lism ism Subject centered (teacher, problem centered) Cognitive learning, disciplines

Subject-matter
Curriculum Learning

For its own self-importance All have similar value


Student Centered (experience centered) Exploratory, discovery

Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies


Categories
Philosophical -orientation
Theoreticalorientation Grouping Teacher

Traditional
Realism

Contemporary
Pragmatism
Reconstructio nism

Idealism and Pragmatism Realism

Perennia Progressiv Essentialism lism ism Homogeneous Disseminates, lectures, dominates instruction

Heterogeneous, culturally diverse


Facilitates, coaches, change agent

Student

Receptacle, receives knowledge, passive

Engages discoverer, constructs knowledge

Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies


Categories
Philosophical -orientation
Theoreticalorientation

Traditional
Realism

Contemporary
Pragmatism
Reconstructio nism

Idealism and Pragmatism Realism

Perennia Progressiv Essentialism lism ism

Social
Citizenship Freedom and democracy

Direction, control, restraint


Cognitive, personal development Conformity, compliance with authority, knowledge and discipline

Individualism
Personal, social development Creativeness, selfactualization, direct experiences

Comparison and Relationship of Realism with Other Philosophies


Categories
Philosophical -orientation
Theoreticalorientation Excellence vs equality Society

Traditional
Realism

Contemporary
Pragmatism
Reconstructio nism

Idealism and Pragmatism Realism

Perennia Progressiv Essentialism lism ism

Excellence in education, academic, rewards and jobs Equality of education based on merits
Group values, acceptance of norms, cooperative and conforming behavior Individual growth, individual ability, importance of individual

* From the dissertation of Dr. David E. Diehl entitled A Study of Faculty-Related Variables and Competence in Integrating Instructional Technologies into Pedagogical Practices. (2006)

Books Electronic Materials Internet Sources

References

Books
Calderon, J. F. (1998). Foundations of Education. Manila:

Rex Book Store. Marmysz, J. (2012). The Path of Philosophy: Truth, Wonder and Distress. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Pande, R. S. (1982). An Introduction to Major Philosophies of Education. Agra, Vinod Pustak Mandir Yambao, R. P. (2011). Social Dimensions of Education. In e. Roel P. Yambao, et. al., Licensure Examination for Teachers NCBTS Oriented LET Reviewer (pp. 271-293). Manila: Modern Education for Teachers. Wilds, E. H., et. al. (1970). The Foundations of Modern Education. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Books Electronic Materials Internet Sources

References

Electronic Material Sources


Brennen, A. (1999). Philosophy of Education. Haanel, C. (2006). Mental Chemistry. Hopson, T. (2007). Philosophy of Education. Marrapodi, J. (2003). Educational Philosophers.

Natad, J. (2009). Definition of Philosophy of Realism & Its Brief

History. Surigao City. Sell, S. (2010). Educational Philosophies: Humanism and Realism. Spade, P. V. (1996). Jean-Paul Sartres Being and Nothingness. Villenes, R. M. (2012). PNULQ March 2012 LET Review: Professional Education Philosophical Foundations of Education. Lopez, Quezon

Books Electronic Materials Internet Sources

References

Internet Sources
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
http://www.school-for

champions.com/education/philosophies.htm http://www.articlesbase.com/education-articles/realismin-education-1319851.html http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861700796/realism.h tml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_realism