This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Light Sources and Ballasts
Module 2: Learning Objectives
Welcome to the second module in Lighting Fundamentals. After successfully completing Module 2, students will:
• Understand the basic operation and performance characteristics of electric light sources
• Understand how discharge light sources operate as part of a lamp/ballast system • Be able to identify commonly used electric light sources and understand where and how they are applied Ready to begin? Let’s start with…..
Brief History of Light Sources
1880 Thomas Edison patents a carbon filament vacuum incandescent lamp. The first gas discharge source, “NEON”, is invented. Mercury Vapor (MV), Low Pressure Sodium (LPS), and the first fluorescent sources are developed. High Pressure Sodium (HPS), Metal Halide (MH) & colorcorrected MV lamps introduced. Color-improved HPS and MH. High CRI fluorescent lamps. Electronic fluorescent ballasts developed. CFL, T10 & T8 fluorescent lamps introduced. LED & Electroluminescent exit signs. Energy-efficient magnetic fluorescent ballasts. High-CRI HPS, Ceramic MH, Induction, Sulfur, T5 & T2, and reduced mercury fluorescent lamps, electronic HID ballasts introduced. High output blue LED developed Large scale market acceptance of CFLs; proliferation of “white” LEDs and colored LEDs for general illumination and signage;
The Incandescent Lamp .
109 LPW Mercury 40 .180 LPW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Lumens Per Watt .Lamp Efficacy Incandescent/Halogen 10 .58 LPW Metal Halide 67 .115 LPW High Pressure Sodium 71 .Including Ballast .145 LPW Low Pressure Sodium 100 .30 LPW Fluorescent 60 .
Types: there are two general families of filament lamps: incandescent and halogen (more on halogen a little later). sizes. it will glow and emit light. They are available in a myriad of shapes. and cost. Anybody for a flame-shaped yellow bug light? .Incandescent Lamps Definition: an incandescent lamp (generally known as a “filament lamp”) produces light using the principle of incandescence – when a tungsten filament is sufficiently heated by passing electric current through it. Filament lamps are still the most common light source. light output.
bases. sizes.Incandescent Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages • Low initial cost • High CRI • Instant on • Not ambient temperature sensitive • No ballast • Large variety of shapes. wattages • Ease of dimming Disadvantages • Lowest efficacy (10-20 lpw) • High infrared output (heat) • Short life (750-1000 hours) • Voltage sensitivity • Environmental impact • Wattage Interchangeability .
Construction Envelope (Bulb) Tungsten Filament Gas Stem Press Supports Fuse. within the lead-in wires Base .
Skt. 64 Screw Term. 64 PAR 38. 56. Side Prong .Lamp Shapes C-7 S-11 B10 F T Linear 2-base PS A G A-15-19 P S PAR 46. R ER PAR 38 Med. 46 Med. 56. PAR 46.
Lamp Size Designations .
Lamp Life Mortality Curves Percent Survivors 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 50% Survivors Percent Rated Life .
Tungsten Halogen Lamps .
. efficacy. and color temperature (“whiter” light).Tungsten Halogen Lamps Tungsten Halogen lamps • An extension of the incandescent family •Often called “quartz halogen” or just “halogen” lamps •They have a more complex construction in order to increase life. •Many halogen lamps are a “lamp within a lamp” – a small halogen “capsule” is mounted in a reflector •Halogen lamps can be either line voltage (120V) or low voltage (12V).
The Tungsten Halogen Cycle .
High Pressure Capsule • High Density Fill Gases • Halogen Cycle .Standard Incandescent vs. Halogen Standard Incandescent • Large Surface Area to Minimize Bulb Blackening • 750 .1000 Hour Life • Atmospheric Pressure Halogen • Compact.
30. and 38 Halogen “A” lamps Double-ended Bayonet base PAR Halogen A-lamps Double-ended Low Voltage Bi-pin Halogen MR-11 and MR-16 AR-70.Types of Halogen Lamps Line Voltage PAR 20. AR-111 AR-111 Bi-pin MR-16 Bayonet base .
More types of halogen lamps PAR30 Long Neck PAR38 DEQ PAR20 PAR30 MR 16 .
Standard Incandescent • Excellent Optical Control • Whiter Light: 3000K • Easily Dimmable • Wide variety of shapes and sizes .Advantages of Tungsten Halogen Lamps • Higher Efficacy: 15-30 lpw (compared to incandescent) • High Luminaire Efficiency • 2X – 3X Life vs.
Common Line Voltage Halogen Lamp Halogen PAR Technology "A Lamp Within a Lamp" Lens Bonded or Flame Sealed Reflector Halogen Capsule Medium Skirted Base .
MR-16 Low Voltage Lamp Dichroic reflector coatings Low voltage halogen capsule (usually 12V) Bi-Pin base Glass Substrate Infra-red Radiation (Heat) Light Approx. 19 Layers of Optical Coating .
Advantages of Low Voltage • Smaller filaments provide improved beam control • Typically longer life than line voltage lamps • Some types have higher color temperature • Lamps are smaller in size .
More Rugged Filaments 12 Volt 270 m Diameter 120 Volt 220 Volt Human Hair 35 m Diameter 70 m Diameter 45 m Diameter .Tungsten Halogen Filaments Filament Wire Diameter as a Factor of Design Voltage 100 Watts Low Voltages Use Thicker.
0 75.0 60.0 65.0 95.0 Fluorescent 85.0 70.Lumen Maintenance 105.0 80.0 100.0 Tungsten Halogen Percent Initial Lumens 90.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Incandescent Metal Halide Percent Rated Life .
IR (Infra-Red) Halogen Lamps Halogen IR lamps have increased efficacy over standard halogen – IR-reflective coating on OUTSIDE of bulb – Reflects IR energy (better known as “heat”) back onto the filament – Bulb is shaped to maximize reflected IR back onto the filament – Filament reaches operating temperature at lower current (and therefore less power) than standard halogen .
If you dim a halogen lamp too low. To fix the problem. just operate at full power for a short while and the capsule will be “cleaned”.Can Halogen Lamps be dimmed? • Halogen and Dimming – The halogen cycle only works when the inside wall of the capsule is above 250º C. . the cycle stops and the inside of the capsule becomes gray.
for warm sources. the CRI is 100 •Strong in red/orange •Weak in blue .Spectral Characteristics •Filament lamps have a “continuous” spectrum •By definition.
Fluorescent Lamps .
30 LPW Fluorescent 60 .109 LPW Mercury 40 .Lamp Efficacy Incandescent 10 .115 LPW High Pressure Sodium 71 .145 LPW Low Pressure Sodium 100 .58 LPW Metal Halide 67 .180 LPW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Lumens Per Watt .Including Ballast .
Fluorescent Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages •High efficacy Disadvantages •Requires a ballast •Long life •Good CRI •Variety of Color Temperatures •Low cost per lumen •Wide array of fixture types •Low glare source •Dimmable •Difficult to focus – not a point source •System cost (lamp and ballast) higher than filament sources •Fixtures are large •Temperature sensitivity •Life affected by switching cycles .
Construction & Operation Phosphor Bulb Visible Light Base Hot Cathode Electron Argon Ultraviolet Radiation Mercury Atom .
General Categories of Fluorescent Lamps Linear fluorescent • Most common for general lighting Compact fluorescent • Commonly used as replacement for incandescent Electrodeless lamps • More recent development – used as replacement for some HID lamps .
Phosphor Coatings Phosphor • A substance that converts one wavelength to another • Typically. inorganic compounds that “fluoresce” when exposed to 254 nm radiation • Typically blended to produce various colors or versions of “white” “Halo” phosphors • Calcium halophosphate compounds • Inexpensive .
Phosphor Coatings “Tri” phosphors • Also called “rare earth” phosphors • Many are compounds of “rare earth” elements • Expensive .
not in common use today •Rapid Start • Mostly used in T12. T12 HO. allows frequent switching and long life .Lamp Circuits There are several types of fluorescent lamp circuits: •Preheat • Oldest type. and T12 VHO systems. not energy efficient •Instant Start • Most popular for T8 systems • Low cost and energy efficient •Programmed Start • “Softest” starting method.
Fluorescent Lamp Identification Example: 4-foot T8 lamp F32T8/735 F = Fluorescent 32 = Nominal Lamp Wattage T = Tubular 8 = Bulb diameter in eighths of an inch 7 = 700 series phosphor – CRI between 70 and 79 35 = 3500K CCT .
Lamp Lumen Depreciation* Percent of Initial Lumens 100 90 80 70 60 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent of Average Rated Life T8 (265 mA) T12 (425 mA) T12 (430 mA) T12 (800 mA) T12 (1500 mA) IES LLD factor is at 40% of rated life * Also known as “lumen maintenance” .
Lamp Life Lamp type •Average rated life can vary from 6000 hours for some compact fluorescent lamps to 24.000+ Fluorescent . •As with incandescent.000 20.000 18. •Lamp life is based on a burn cycle of 3 hours on and 20 minutes off. life can be as high as 36.000 10. hours 6.000 12.000 hours for some T8 lamps.000 60.000 hours for some T8 lamps. •With longer “on” cycles.000 F32T8 RE F96T8/HO F28T5 Electrodeless 24.000 20. average rated life is based on 50% survivors of a large sample size. Compact fluorescent Screw base Compact fluorescent Pin base F40 CW/RS F96T12/HO Life.
3 hours on.Starting Cycles Effect of Starting Frequency on Lamp Life 200 Percent of Rated Life 150 100 0 5 10 15 20 Hours per Start ANSI cycle . 20 minutes off .
TEMPERATURE 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 o RELATIVE LIGHT OUTPUT T5 T8 40 45 50 55 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE C .Temperature Effects T8/T5 LUMEN OUTPUT VS.
Spectral Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamps Most contemporary fluorescent lamps (triphosphor types) have a “discontinuous” or “line” color spectrum Different ratios of the red. and blue phosphor produce the variety of CCTs CCT typically 3000K – 4100K CRI typically 70-86 . green.
signage. Life based on lumen maintenance and/or ballast life Cost higher than for standard fluorescent Used in areas where lighting maintenance cost is high – low-bay industrial.000 hours (self-ballasted) to 60. .000 hours. street lighting. etc.Electrodeless Fluorescent Lamps Developed in the 1990’s Design eliminates one failure mode of standard fluorescent lamps: the cathode Operates on the principle of induction Life from 15. tunnel/bridge.
Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts .
Electro-magnetic Ballast Electronic Ballast .Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Coils Made of wound copper or aluminum wire. transforms the current to control the lamps. phase displacement and current limiting. With the coils. •Provide necessary electrical conditions to start and operate lamps •Two general categories – electromagnetic (or just “magnetic”) and electronic Thermal Switch (Class P) Core Consists of stacked steel plates laminated together. Found only in high power factor ballasts. •Almost all new fluorescent fixtures today employ electronic ballasts •Lamps and ballasts are generally matched to ensure electrical compatibility Capacitor For power factor correction.
North American Linear Fluorescent Ballast Market Transformation 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 Electronic Magnetic Source US Census – 2005 .
instant start. dimmable •Mostly found in older T12 fixtures and outdoor applications •Difficult to integrate into automated control systems •Market decreasing rapidly •Can operate up to 4 lamps •Parallel operation •Easily integrated into control systems •Available with several different ballast factors •Universal input voltage •Cost effective . few components •Large and heavy •Low energy efficiency •Typically only operate 1 or 2 lamps •Potentially noticeable flicker •Potentially audible noise Electronic •Greater number of components •Smaller and lighter than magnetic •More energy efficient – lower losses and operates lamp more efficiently •No flicker due to high frequency operation •Used in majority of new T8. T5. and CF fixtures •Variety of operation – rapid start.Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Electromagnetic •Simple construction. programmed start.
60 to 1. low ballast factor ballast can be used to increase energy savings (rather than de-lamp).20 (“High”). Application Examples: For retrofit from T12 to T8 lamps.78 (“Low”).Ballast Factor Definition: Ratio of lamp lumens when operated on a commercial ballast (actual lumens) to the lamp lumens when operated on a reference ballast (catalog lumens) B.88 (“Normal”). = lamp lumens on commercial ballast lamp lumens on reference ballast Ballast Factor Ranges: Can vary from 0. 0. If original level is too high. . high ballast factor ballast might allow use of 2-lamp fixture rather than 3-lamp fixture. but normally listed as 0. ballast factor can be used to “tune” the light levels relative to the original level.28. For new fixtures. and 1.F.
However.System Efficacy For discharge light sources. nominal lamp lumens per nominal lamp watts. more useful metric is used: •System efficacy – actual lamp lumens per total system wattage. . The actual lamp lumens in this case includes adjustment for ballast factor. when the power losses and operating characteristics of the ballast are considered (type of circuit and ballast factor). then a second. Total system wattage is defined as the input watts to the ballast which includes lamp operating wattage and ballast power losses. there are actually two efficacy metrics: •Lamp efficacy – as we have learned.
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps .
Incandescent 10 - 30 LPW Fluorescent 60 - 109 LPW Mercury 40 - 58 LPW Metal Halide 67 - 115 LPW High Pressure Sodium 71 - 145 LPW Low Pressure Sodium 100 - 180 LPW
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Lumens Per Watt - Including Ballast
Types of HID lamps
Mercury •Old technology; soon obsolete for general lighting Metal Halide (MH) •Popular choice for “white” light source •Used both for interior and exterior High Pressure Sodium (HPS) •Used mainly for outdoor street and area lighting •Higher efficacy than MH Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) •Highest efficacy of all HID sources •Monochromatic yellow
• Oldest HID technology • Lowest efficacy of HID types – Not much better than halogen • Poor – Fair CRI • High CCT • Poor lumen maintenance • Strong color shift as they age – turns green! • Basically obsolete due to recent legislation banning mercury ballasts – Allows replacement lamps, but no new fixtures
etc.g. wattages. along with argon gas) Most complex of the HID sources Popularity growing due to variety of types.. color temperatures. sodium. scandium.Metal Halide Lamps Enhanced version of the mercury lamp Elements are added to the arc tube to improve performance (e. .
Limited dimmability Limited availability of electronic ballasts (costly if available) .MH Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages High light output (“white” light) High efficacy Long life (6. ceramic arc tube) Large range of wattages (39W – 1500W) Dimmability (although limited) Disadvantages Some color shift over life Possible color inconsistency lamp to lamp Sensitive to burning position Higher cost Some MH types and certain applications should be group relamped.000 – 20.000 hours) Virtual point source for good optical control Premium types available with good color (80-95 CRI) and improved lumen maintenance (due to pulse start.
nickel plated steel Stem • Allows for hermetic seal of outer bulb • Hard Glass (Borosilicate) • Provides electrical path to Mount – Flare. getter. resistor. etc. bi-metal switch.Key Lamp Components Arc Tube • Light source • Quartz or PCA (Polycrystalline Alumina) – Electrodes. lead wires and exhaust tube . gas fill Mount • Supports/Centers arc tube in Outer Jacket (aka: bulb) • Provides electrical path to arc tube • Frame. straps. radiating elements. – Stainless steel.
T6. BT28.) Outer Jacket (OJ) . ET18. E17. – Letter refers to bulb shape – Number refers to bulb diameter in “eighths of an inch” Base • Provide electrical path from socket to stem lead wires • Brass or Nickel plated brass • Glass or ceramic insulator .Envelope • Provides clean/temp controlled environment for arc tube • Filters out UV • Hard Glass (borosilicate) • Sizes – BT56. etc. BT37. PAR38.Key Lamp Components (cont.
Outer Jacket Shapes BT56 BT37 BT28 ET18 ET23.5 E17 ED17 PAR38 PAR30LN PAR20 T6/G12 .
500 20.500 Standard MH 10.500 Premium MH Lumens 15.000 22.000 17.500 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Operating Hours .000 7.MH Lumen Maintenance 25.500 5.000 12.000 2.
High Pressure Sodium Most efficient of the popular lamp types Contain mostly sodium and small amount of mercury plus xenon gas Used almost exclusively for outdoor lighting – roadway. airport Various types available – “ECO”. flood lighting. security. non-cycling. standby . high CRI. façade.
CRI ~ 22 •Up to 140. leadfree designs .Characteristics of High Pressure Sodium Lamps •Highest efficacy of popular lamp types – up to 140 lpw •Arc tube of translucent alumina (ceramic) contains sodium. and xenon gas •Light is “yellow-orange” •CCT = 2100K. small amount of mercury.000 lumens Outer Jacket Getter Stem Base Dome Mount Supports Frame Starting Aid Alumina Arc Tube •Lamp cycles at end of life (non-cycling types available) •“ECO” types with low mercury.
security lighting. tunnel lighting. lighting near observatories .Low Pressure Sodium Lamps Highest efficacy light source: up to 200 lpw Monochromatic yellow light @ 589nm Used where color rendering is not of primary importance: Roadway lighting.
and mounting inside of poles . mainly 20W – 400W MH Newer magnetic types (for pulse start MH) use a special starting component called an “ignitor” Electronic ballasts have an integral ignitor HPS magnetic ballasts have always used ignitors Magnetic ballasts are available in a variety of types for outdoor use. remote mounting.HID Ballasts Most HID ballasts are magnetic Electronic types available for some lower wattage lamps.
more expensive than magnetic types . therefore potentially longer life •Not available in higher wattages.Characteristics of HID Ballasts Magnetic •Large and heavy •Fair to good lamp power regulation •Available in myriad of types for many applications Electronic •Smaller and lighter than magnetic •Can have very good power regulation •Do not increase lamp efficiency (as in fluorescent) •Not high frequency •Can provide improved lumen maintenance and reduced color shift.
The Light Emitting Diode (LED) .
LED Light Sources •Generically known as Solid State Lighting (SSL) •Depending on type. but growing •New product development more akin to electronics industry than to lighting industry •Product life cycles are short (12 – 18 months) . or light •LEDs and luminaires are available from numerous manufacturers. not just the traditional lighting companies •The lighting market for LEDs is still very small. can emit IR. UV.
the energy it loses in doing so is given up in the form of a photon . the electrons and holes combine at this active layer •When an electron fills a “hole” at the active layer. the absence of which are called “holes” (positive charge) •The active layer is not a separately applied layer – it forms at the junction of the p and n material •With the application of an external DC voltage. it drops to a lower energy state. semiconductor material •N-type layer of material has excess electrons (negative charge) •P-type layer has a deficiency of electrons.LED Construction and Operation •Consists of a multi-layer.
LED Packages •LED chips are packaged with various configurations • Simple twin lead (original method) • Flat package (SMD) with single LED • Flat package with multiple LED chips .
LED Packaging Considerations •Optical • Light extraction from the chip (key factor in determining efficacy) • Total light output of the package – Primary and secondary optical components •Electrical • Physical connection of lead wires to chip • Power leads into the package •Thermal • Heat extraction from the p-n junction • Heat transfer to an external heat sink .
green. lumens. Mix the light from discrete red. 3. G. and B LEDs are necessary • . and CRI are fixed for #2 and #3.White Light from LEDs • Since the introduction of the blue LED in the mid-90’s. • CCT. discrete R. To dynamically adjust CCT. white light from LED’s became possible Several ways to produce white light 1. 2. lumens. and CRI. and blue LEDs Use a blue LED to excite a yellow phosphor coating Use a UV or violet LED to excite a multi-component phosphor • • Easiest method from a cost and simplicity standpoint is #2 above.
high ambient temperatures must be taken into account when heat sinking • Humidity and dirt conditions must also be considered .Application Issues LED life ratings • Based on 70% lumen maintenance point. not mortality • Different maintenance requirements for various applications • IES LM-79 and LM-80 have been adopted to define LED life and lumen maintenance Thermal design • Proper heat sinking required to achieve rated life • Auxiliary forced cooling may be required (air or water) Optical performance • Secondary optics can be selected for various beam spreads Ambient conditions • While an LED’s light output is not as temperature sensitive as fluorescent.
or decorative effects Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) • Special type of LED using polymers (plastics) for the light emitting layer • Used in displays for cell phones.Other Light Sources Cold Cathode (“Neon”) • Special type of low pressure discharge using robust electrodes • Can be pure gas discharge or phosphor-coated with mercury discharge • Typically used in sign or linear decorative applications (check out the food court at your shopping mall) Electroluminescent • Uses phosphors directly excited by an electric field • Typically used for instrument panel or cell phone keypad backlighting. and now small video screens Daylight • Can be used to supplement or replace electric lighting • Needs to be integrated into the architectural and lighting design for buildings to properly take advantage of it for energy savings . MP3 players. signage.
Good luck! . Now. it’s time for the quiz.Module 2: Quiz Time! Congratulations – you have concluded Module 2.