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CHAPTER TWO Page 65 (4


th
Edition)
Transformer
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2.1 (P-57) WHY TRANSFORMER ARE IMPORTANT
TO MODERN LIFE
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2.1 (P-57) WHY TRANSFORMER ARE IMPORTANT
TO MODERN LIFE
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2.1 (P-57) WHY TRANSFORMER ARE IMPORTANT
TO MODERN LIFE
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2.1 (P-57) WHY TRANSFORMER ARE IMPORTANT
TO MODERN LIFE
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2.1 (P-57) WHY TRANSFORMER ARE IMPORTANT
TO MODERN LIFE
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2.2 (P-57-58) TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF
TRANSFORMER (cont..
Unit
Transformer
Grid
Transformer
Grid
Transformer
Distribution
Transformer
Sub-Station
Transformer
Sub-Station
Transformer
Sub-Station
Transformer
Sub-Station
Transformer
More Distance HV
Low I
2
R Losses
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3 Phase
Transmission Line
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Primary and Secondary Windings
A two-winding transformer consists of two windings interlinked by a mutual
magnetic field

Primary winding energized by connecting it to an input source

Secondary winding to which an electrical load is connected and from
which output energy is drawn.
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11
12
V
Mutual Flux |
N
P
N
S
V
P
V
S
I
P
I
S
L
O
A
D
AC Generator
Transformer
Source
Another
Transformer
Resistive or
inductive or
combined
load
Ratio tion Transforma a
I
I
N
N
V
V
p
s
s
p
s
p
= = = =
Circuit - Ideal Transformer Why?
No Leakage Flux
No Losses -
{No Winding Resistance Losses}
- [No Core Losses due to eddy current and hysterisis]
Core of a
transformer
Primary Side
(P)
Secondary Side
(S)
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2.2 (P-57-58) TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER
Core Type Transformer
Mutual Flux u
M
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2.2 (P-57-58) TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER
Shell Type Transformer
Mutual Flux u
M
Question: (Must Know)
Why transformer,
motors and generators
cores are made of
laminated iron core
(steel sheets)?
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2.2 (P-57-58) TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF
TRANSFORMER
The primary and secondary windings in a physical transformer are wrapped one on top
of other with the low-voltage winding innermost. Such an arrangement serves two
purposes:
1. Insulating the high-voltage winding from the core.
2. If the two windings were separated by a distance on the core, would results in much
leakage flux
Iron core
Terminals
Secondary
winding
Insulation
Primary
Winding
Secondary
Winding
Multi-layer
Laminated
Iron Core
X
1
X
2
H
1
H
2
Winding
Terminals
Shell Type
Shell Type both windings on same leg
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2. Why the transformers, motors and generators cores are made of iron why not from
copper, Aluminum, glass, plastic or wood?
3. Why the transformer, motors and generators cores are made of laminated steel
sheets (i.e. not solid steel) . Why ?
4. Laminated steel sheets are insulated from each other to
(a) increase the eddy current (b) decrease the eddy current (c) increase the
Hysterysis losses (d) decrease the hystyresis losses (f) decrease the mutual flux
Find the correct answer with justification/explanation.

Question:
1. Can we use the
primary as a secondary
or secondary as a
primary?
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V
Mutual Flux |
N
P
N
S
V
P
V
S
I
P
I
S
L
O
A
D
What is Hysterisis loss?
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What is Leakage flux (inductance)?
Note:
Primary & secondary
windings resistance are
not shown in the circuit
Question: Do we have
secondary winding leakage
flux (inductance), if the load
on the secondary side is not
connected? Why?
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2.3 (P-58-61) THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER
The ideal transformer has the following properties:
No iron or copper losses
No leakage flux
A core of infinite magnetic permeability and of infinite electrical resistivity
Flux is confined to the core and winding resistances are negligible
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In instantaneous quantities
2.3 (P-58-61) THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (cont..
Input voltage (V
p
) and
the output voltage (V
s
), between
the input current (I
p
) and
the output current ((I
s
) between
the primary turns (N
P
) and
the secondary turns (N
S
)
( )
( )
( )
( )
a
N
N
t i
t i
t v
t v
s
p
p
s
s
p
= = =
a
I
I
V
V
p
s
s
p
= = In rms quantities
a: turns ratio (transformation ratio)
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2.3 (P-58-61) THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (cont..
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
a
N
N
t i
t i
t v
t v
a
N
N
t i
t i
t i N t i N
a
N
N
t v
t v
dt
t d
N
dt
t d
t v
dt
t d
N
dt
t d
t v
s
p
p
s
s
p
s
p
p
s
s s p p
s
p
s
p
M
s
s
s
M
p
p
p
= = =
= =
=
= =
|
=

=
|
=

=
From Amperes law
Dividing (1) by (2)
Equating (3) and (4)
.. (1)
.. (2)
........ (3)
.... (4)
.. (5)
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Voltage polarity: Dot convention:
Phase dots are used to indicate polarities
2.3 (P-58-61) THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (cont..
Sketch of an ideal transformer
Schematic symbol of a transformer
The direction of the windings determines the
polarity of the voltage across the secondary winding
with respect to the voltage across the primary
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The center tap (CT) transformer is equivalent to two secondary windings with half the
voltage across each

Center tap windings are used for rectifier supplies and impedance-matching
transformers
Dot : Center Tapped Transformers
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TRANSFORMERS
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TRANSFORMERS
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TRANSFORMERS
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28
29
30
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A step-up transformer has a ratio of 1 to 10.
Neglecting slight losses, if 100 W of power
go into the primary coil, the power coming
from the secondary coil is
(a) 1 W
(b) 10 W
(c) 100 W
(d) 1000 W
(e) none of these
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A step-up transformer has a ratio N of 1
(P) to 10 (S). Neglecting slight losses, if 1
Amp of current go into the primary coil,
the current coming from the secondary
coil is
(a) 0.1 Amp
(b) 1 Amp
(c) 10 Amp
(d) 100 Amp
(e) none of these
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In the circuit shown, how many volts are
impressed across, and how many
amperes flow through, the light bulb?
Answer: 0.1 amp; 100:10 = 120:V, V = 10V; 10 x 1 = 100 x ?, so ? = 0.1
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An ideal transformer has 50 turns in its
primary and 250 turns in its secondary.
12-V AC is connected to the primary.
Find:
(a) the volts AC available at the secondary,
(b) the current in a 10-ohm device
connected to the secondary, and
(c) the power supplied to the primary.
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primary voltage secondary voltage

primary turns secondary turns
=
12 V
=
50 250
12 x 250
V = = 60 volts
50
V 60
I x = x 6 amps
R 10
Power to primary = Power to secondary
P x VI =60 x 6 =360 watts
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|
P
Q
S
I V =
/|
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jQ = /90
o

-jQ = /-90
o

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Power in an Ideal Transformer
( )
( )
out s s p p in
out s s
s
s p p in
in p p p
p
s s s out
s p
p p p in
S I V I V S
Q I V
a
I
aV I V Q
P I V aI
a
V
I V P
I V P
= = =
= u = u |
.
|

\
|
= u =
= u = u
|
|
.
|

\
|
= u =
u = u = u
u =
sin cos sin
cos cos cos
cos
Real power P supplied to the transformer by the primary circuit
Real power coming out of the secondary circuit
Thus, the output power of an ideal transformer is equal to its input power.
The same relationship applies to reactive Q and apparent power S:
2.3 (P-58-61) THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (cont..
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Question from class student.

What is actuator?

Ans: Next Slide
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Electro-
Mechanical
What is a Actuator?
Actuator is a device which produce mechanical
energy (output motion) in response to some type
of energy input.
Energy
Electrica
l

Thermal
Fluid
Hydraulic
Pneumatic
Mechanical
Chemical
Actuator Motion
Rotary
Linear
Complex
Many actuators rely on electromagnetic
forces to create their action.