The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2

)

Project Update: Self-Perceptions of Youth With Disabilities
Renée Cameto Lynn Newman Mary Wagner SRI International June 14, 2006
1

NLTS2 Overview

Focuses on Study began Age at start of study Disability categories Longitudinal

Youth 2000 – 2001 school year 13 to 16 All disability categories 9 years 5 waves of data collection

2

NLTS2 Sample Design
NLTS2 includes a nationally representative sample of LEAs, from which students were randomly selected to generalize to:
• Students receiving special education who are in the NLTS2 age range • Each of the 12 special education disability categories • Each single-year age cohort, with a larger proportion of the oldest age group than others

3

Today’s agenda
• Describe the perceptions of youth with disabilities regarding:
– – – – – Themselves Their self-determination abilities School Their social involvement Expectations for their future

• Compare the perceptions held by youth with disabilities, when possible, with:
– – – – Their own actions Perceptions held by youth in the general population Their parents’ perceptions Other sources of data about them

4

Data sources
• Primarily NLTS2 Wave 2 (2003) youth telephone interviews/mail survey (youth who could respond for themselves, could be reached, and were willing to respond)
– N = 2,919

• NLTS2 youth in-person interviews (2002 and 2004) as part of youth assessments
– N = 5,111

• For comparison:
– Data from parents for youth who did not respond for themselves (to describe differences in the samples; N = 3,940) – NLTS2 Waves 1 and 3 (2001 and 2005) parent/youth interviews for youth with Wave 2 youth data (variable sample size by item) – Selected surveys of youth in the general population
5

Characteristics of youth respondents
• Compared with youth whose parents were interview respondents, youth who responded for themselves are significantly: – More likely to have a learning disability (69 percent vs. 54 percent) or to be from a household with an income of more than $50,000 (41 percent vs. 30 percent). – Less likely to have mental retardation (8 percent vs. 17 percent) or multiple disabilities (1 percent vs. 3 percent) or to be male (64 percent vs. 71 percent). – More likely to have high functional cognitive skills (70 percent vs. 54 percent), social skills (26 percent vs. 18 percent), and self-care skills (97 percent vs. 90 percent). – Less likely to have trouble communicating (23 percent vs. 43 percent), understanding language (26 percent vs. 43 percent), hearing (6 percent vs. 15 percent), seeing (11 percent vs. 18 percent), using their arms and hands (3 percent vs. 9 percent), or using their legs or feet (5 percent vs. 11 percent).
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 1 parent interviews, 2001 and school district rosters indicating primary disability classification.

6

Perceptions of self among youth with disabilities
• • • • Strengths Self-concept Views of their life Views of their disability

7

Youth’s and parents’ reports of strengths of youth with disabilities
Report being “very good” at: Being well organized
Performing arts Creative arts Being sensitive to others' feelings Mechanical skills Using a computer Physical/atheletic activities Having a sense of humor
Percent
Youth Parent
Statistical significance: *p < .05; **p < .01, ***p < .001. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 1 parent interviews, 2001, and Wave 2 youth interviews/survey,

22 19 15*** 27 21***

35 41** 52

26**

38 33*** 35 36

54 51*

60

8

Youth with disabilities’ perceptions of self
How much the following statements are “like you:”
You can handle most things that come your way You feel useful and important You are a nice person You are proud of who you are

64

32

4

59

32

9

83

17

1

73
Very much like me A little like me

24

3

Not at all like me

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

9

Youth’s perceptions of general competence, by disability category
Youth perceive the statement “you can handle most things that come your way” is “very much like me”
Visual impairment Emotional disturbance Learning disability Hearing impairment Orthopedic impairment Traumatic brain injury Speech impairment Other health impairment Deaf-blindness Multiple disabilities Mental retardation Autism
Percent
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment, 2001 and 2003.

73 68 67 66 64 63 61 59 58 56 53 39

10

Youth with disabilities’ positive feelings toward life
During the past week, how often youth: Enjoyed life
Youth with disabilities

58*** 46

19*** 35

18 15

5 3

General population

Felt hopeful for the future
Youth with disabilities General population
Most or all the time

41** 31
A lot of the time

23*** 35
Sometimes

24 24
Rarely or never

12 10

Statistical significance: **p < .01, ***p < .001; for comparison between youth disabilities and in the general population Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 1 youth survey, 1998

11

Youth’s enjoyment of life, by disability category
Traumatic brain injury Learning disability Speech impairment Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Emotional disturbance Orthopedic impairment Visual impairment Other health impairment Deaf-blindness Hearing impairment Autism

66 59 58 56 56 56 54 53 53 52 47 43
Percent A lot of the time Sometimes

11 18 20 19 23 20 23 31 24 29 29 34

22 18 19 16 18 17 21 12 22 15 23 21

2 5 2 9 3 8 2 4 2 4 1 2

Most or all the time

Rarely or never

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

12

Youth with disabilities’ negative feelings toward life
During the past week, how often youth: Felt lonely Youth with disabilities 8 4 26
General population 2 5

62 66

26

Felt depressed Youth with disabilities

5 4

34 30

57 61

General population 2 7

Thought people disliked him or her Youth with disabilities

1 General population 3

7 4 28

29

61 68
Percent
Sometimes Rarely or never

Most or all the time

A lot of the time

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 1 youth survey, 1998

13

Youth’s feelings of depression, by disability category
Multiple disabilities Mental retardation Orthopedic impairment Traumatic brain injury Speech impairment Autism Emotional disturbance Other health impairment Hearing impairment Visual impairment Learning disability Deaf-blindness

12 2 42 11 5 32 7 10 18 6 5 32 6 4 29 6 7 36 6 6 29 5 4 34 44 31 34 23 33 36 24 37
Percent

44 52 65 56 61 51 59 57 60 70 58 57
Rarely or never

Most or all the time

A lot of the time

Sometimes

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

14

Youth perceive themselves to have a disability or special need
All disabilities Deaf-blindness Visual impairment Orthopedic impairment Multiple disabilities Autism Hearing impairment Other health impairment Mental retardation Traumatic brain injury Emotional disturbance Learning disability Speech impairment

32 74 71 71 68 60 56 45 40 38 29 28 21
Percent

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment, 2001 and 2003.

15

Self-determination of youth with disabilities
• Self-advocacy • Understands service needs • Acknowledges disability • Communicates with professionals about services • ARC Self-determination Scale

16

Youth with disabilities’ feelings of self-advocacy
How much the following statements are “like you:”
Know how to get information you need

64

32

4

Can get school staff/adults to listen to you

65

30

5

Percent Very much like me A little like me Not at all like me

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

17

Youth with disabilities’ report that they know how to get information they need, by disability category
Visual impairment Emotional disturbance Deaf-blindness Traumatic brain injury Hearing impairment Learning disability Autism Speech impairment Other health impairment Multiple disabilities Orthopedic impairment Mental retardation
Percent

77 74 67 67 64 64 63 62 61 61 60 57

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth telephone interviews/survey, 2003.

18

Youth with disabilities’ report that they can get school staff/adults to listen to them, by disability category
Deaf-blindness Visual impairment Traumatic brain injuries Orthopedic impairment Learning disabilities Emotional disturbances Multiple disabilities Mental retardation Other health impairment Hearing impairment Speech impairment Autism

73 70 69 68 67 66 64 63 60 60 58 56
Percent reporting statement is "a lot like me"

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth telephone interviews/survey, 2003.

19

Self-advocacy regarding their disability of youth who report disability
Know what services he or she needs for dealing with disability How often tells professionals opinions on services they provide:
Often

69

32 36 32
Percent

Sometimes Hardly ever

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

20

Knowledge of services needed by youth who report disability, by disability category
Visual impairment Deaf-blindness Orthopedic impairment Hearing impairment Speech impairment Traumatic brain injury Emotional disturbance Learning disability Autism Other health impairment Multiple disabilities Mental retardation

92 91 82 79 78 77 76 72 71 66 65 46
Percent

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth telephone interviews/survey, 2003.

21

Employer and/or postsecondary education institution’s awareness of their disability for youth who report disability

Employers

7

Postsecondary education

93

Percent

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth telephone interviews/survey, 2003.

22

Personal autonomy items
• • • • • • • • • • I keep my own personal items together I keep good personal care and grooming I make friends with other kids my age I keep my appointments and meetings I plan weekend activities that I like to do I am involved in school-related activities I volunteer for things that I am interested in I go to restaurants that I like I choose gifts to give to family and friends I choose how to spend my personal money
Source: Wehmeyer, M.L. (2000). The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale: Procedural Guidelines (Revised). Silver Spring, MD: The Arc of the United States.

23

Autonomy in career planning items
• I work on schoolwork that will improve my career chances. • I do school and free time activities based on my career interests. • I make long-range career plans. • I work or have worked to earn money. • I am in or have been in career or job classes or training

Source: Wehmeyer, M.L. (2000). The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale: Procedural Guidelines (Revised). Silver Spring, MD: The Arc of the United States.

24

Self-realization items
• • • • • I can like people even if I don’t agree with them. I know what I do best. I like myself. I know how to make up for my limitations. I am confident in my abilities

Source: Wehmeyer, M.L. (2000). The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale: Procedural Guidelines (Revised). Silver Spring, MD: The Arc of the United States.

25

Psychological empowerment items
• I tell others when I have a new or different opinion, or I usually agree with others’ opinions and/or ideas. • I can make my own decisions, or Other people make decisions for me. • I can get what I want by working hard, or I need good luck to get what I want. • I keep trying even after I get something wrong, or It is no use to keep trying because it will not work. • I usually make good choices, or I usually do not make good choices. • I will be able to make choices that are important to me, or My choices will not be honored.
Source: Wehmeyer, M.L. (2000). The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale: Procedural Guidelines (Revised). Silver Spring, MD: The Arc of the United States.

26

Self-determination scores of youth with disabilities
Personal 3 autonomy

48

50

Autonomy in career planning

12 1

60

28

Self-realization

42

57

Psychological 3 empowerment

16
Low Medium

81
High

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment 2002 and 2004.

27

Personal autonomy scores, by disability category
Speech impairment 3 Visual impairment 1 Learning disability 2 Hearing impairment 3 Mental retardation 2 Traumatic brain injury 2 Multiple disabilities 5 Deaf-blindness 1 Orthopedic impairment 3 Other health impairment 1 Emotional disturbance 4 Autism 5
Low

43 45 46 46 49 51 50 55 53 57 56 66
Medium

54 53 52 51 48 47 45 44 44 42 40 29
High

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment 2002 and 2004.

28

Autonomy in career planning scores, by disability category
Mental retardation Traumatic brain injury Speech impairment Emotional disturbance Hearing impairment Visual impairment Deaf-blindness Learning disability Other health impairment Multiple disabilities Orthopedic impairment Autism

11 13 12 15 9 9 9 12 11 23 18 17
Low

52 54 56 58 63 64 62 61 66 54 61 64
Medium

37 34 32 28 28 28 28 27 23 23 21 20
High

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment 2002 and 2004.

29

Self-realization scores, by disability category
Traumatic brain injury 4 Mental retardation 3 Speech impairment 4 Visual impairment 2 Hearing impairment 3 Deaf-blindness 1 Learning disability 3 Multiple disabilities Emotional disturbance Other health impairment Orthopedic impairment Autism

9 5 3 4 7
Low

50 52 53 58 56 59 58 54 62 65 63 68
Medium

47 44 43 41 41 40 39 36 33 32 32 25
High

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment 2002 and 2004.

30

Psychological empowerment scores, by disability category
Visual impairment 2 12 Learning disability 2 14 Traumatic brain injury 2 16 Other health impairment 1 16 Speech impairment 2 16

18 Orthopedic impairment 3 18 Hearing impairment 2 21 Deaf-blindness 2 21 25 Mental retardation 7 33 Multiple disabilities 6 36 Autism 5
Low

Emotional disturbance 2

87 84 83 82 82 79 79 77 76 68 61 59
Medium High

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) student assessment 2002 and 2004.

31

Views of school
• Academic challenges • Relationships at school • Participation at school • Receipt of services from school

32

Youth with disabilities’ perceptions of school difficulty
"Very hard", 5% "Not hard at all", 14%

"Pretty hard", 36%

"Not very hard", 45%

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

33

Perceptions of difficulty of school, by disability category
Emotional disturbance Multiple disabilities Mental retardation Hearing impairment Speech impairment Traumatic brain injury Other health impairment Autism Visual impairment Orthopedic impairment Deaf-blindness Learning disabilities

27 24 22 17 16 14 14 14 13 13 11 10

35 38 34 40 43 43 42 39 40 43 34 49
Percent Not very hard

32 31 37 28 38 36 38 39 31 35 48 36
Pretty hard

7 8 7 4 4 7 6 7 5 9 7 5

Not at all hard

Very hard

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

34

Youth with disabilities’ academic challenges
In 2002-03 school year, how often youth had trouble: Paying attention in school

Youth with disabilities General population

24 21

40 46

28 31

8 3

Finishing homework

Youth with disabilities General population

28 28
Never A few times

40 44

22 25

11 3

Percent At least weekly but not daily

Daily

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2 youth survey, 1998.

35

Youth’s perceptions of academic challenges, by disability category
Deaf-blindness Visual impairment Orthopedic impairment Speech impairment Traumatic brain injury Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Hearing impairment Learning disabilities Other health impairment Emotional disturbance Autism

23 23 24 26 26 29 29 32 31 33 31 29 32 35 36 31 36 39 41 42 43 39

30

51

Percentage having trouble weekly or more often with:

Finishing homework

Paying attention at school

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003.

36

Youth with disabilities’ social challenges at school
During the school year, how often youth had trouble: Getting along with teachers 43 Youth with disabilities
Parents of youth with disabilities General population

37 38 43

14

6 9 3 12 1

50 44

Getting along with students Youth with disabilities
Parents of youth with disabilities General population

39 48 41

36 41 46
Percent Daily

14

11 8 3 11 3

Never

A few times

At least weekly but not daily

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2001 and 2003, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2 youth survey, 1998

37

Youth’s perceptions of social challenges, by disability category
Visual impairment Orthopedic impairment Deaf-blindness Learning disability Speech impairment Traumatic brain injury Hearing impairment Other health impairment Autism Multiple disabilities Emotional disturbance Mental retardation

12 18 12 19 16 19 21 20 21 20 22 21 23 25 25

30

33

32 25*** 34 25*** 35* 27* 30
Getting along with students

Percent having trouble at least weekly with:

Getting along with teachers

Statistical significance: *p < .05; ***p < .001. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

38

Youth with disabilities’ perceptions of there being an adult at school who cares about them
Disagree a lot, 4% Disagree a little, 11%

Agree a lot, 50% Agree a little, 35%

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

39

Youth’s reports of there being an adult at school who cares about them, by disability category
Multiple disabilities Deaf-blindness Orthopedic impairment Visual impairment Hearing impairment Autism Other health impairment Emotional disturbance Learning disability Traumatic brain injury Speech impairment Mental retardation

67 66 66 64 61 58 58 57 55 50 48 12
Agree a lot

19 29 27 24 26 29 29 27 30 36 30 72
Percent

14 5 8 13 14 14 13 16 15 14 22 16

Agree a little

Disagree a little or a lot

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

40

Youth with disabilities’ levels of involvement at school Involved
Not involved "even when I have a chance" 33% "every time I have the chance", 19%

Involved "most of the time I have a chance", 20%

Involved "sometimes when I have a chance", 28%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

41

Frequency of involvement at school, by disability category
Deaf-blindness Multiple disabilities Hearing impairment Mental retardation Visual impairment Autism Speech impairment Learning disability Other health impairment Orthopedic impairment Traumatic brain injury Emotional disturbance

31 22 31 15 30 21 19 30 26 23 31 19 26 19 21 34 23 28 24 25 22 17 31 30 19 19 30 32 18 21 30 32 16 15 35 34 15 19 32 33 15 16 26 43 14 16 23 47
Percent involved "when I have a chance" Every time Most times Sometimes Never

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) youth in-person interviews, 2002 and 2004

42

Feelings of being part of their school of youth with disabilities and the general population
Does not feel part of school "at all", 10% Feels a part of school, "a little" 24%*** Feels part of school "a lot", 31%

Feels a part of school, "a little" 9%

Does not feel part of school "at all", 3%

Feels part of school "a lot", 32%

Youth with disabilities

Feels "pretty much" part of school, 35%***

Feels "pretty much" part of school, 56%

General population

Statistical significance: ***p < .001 for comparison of youth with disabilities and in the general population. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2 youth survey, 1998

43

Feeling “part of school,” by disability category
Visual impairment Mental retardation Orthopedic impairment Multiple disabilities Deaf-blindness Hearing impairment Speech impairment Learning disability Emotional disturbance Autism Traumatic brain injury Other health impairment

48 38 38 37 37 36 30 30 29 25 25 23
A lot

29 26 29 38 37 30 43 38 27 36 50 36
Pretty much A little

17 27 24 16 24 32 21 22 29 28 20 28
Not at all

6 9 9 9 2 2 6 10 15 11 5 13

Percent feeling part of school

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

44

Youth with disabilities’ perceptions of getting needed services and support from school
Disagree a lot, 6%

Disagree a little, 10%

Agree a lot, 47%

Agree a little, 37%

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

45

Youth’s reports of receiving needed services and support at school, by disability category
Orthopedic impairment Deaf-blindness Visual impairment Other health impairment Traumatic brain injury Autism Hearing impairment Emotional disturbance Learning disability Speech impairment Multiple disabilities Mental retardation

65 62 60 58 57 56 56 53 52 50 45 12
Agree a lot

22 29 28 29 25 31 34 27 32 39 20 78
Percent

13 9 12 13 18 13 10 20 16 11 35 10

Agree a little

Disagree a little or a lot

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

46

Youth with disabilities’ enjoyment of school
Enjoys school "not at all", 11%*** Enjoys school "a little", 21%* Enjoys school "a lot", *** 29%

Enjoys school "not at all", 4% Enjoys school "a little", 16%

Enjoys school "a lot", 15%

Youth with disabilities

Enjoys school "pretty much", 39% ***

Enjoys school "pretty much", 65%

General population

Statistical significance: *p < .05, ***p < .001 for comparisons of youth with disabilities and in the general population. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2001 and 2003, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, parent interview, 1996

47

Enjoyment of school, by disability category
Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Deaf-blindness Visual impairment Orthopedic impairment Autism Hearing impairment Speech impairment Traumatic brain injury Learning disability Emotional disturbance Other health impairment

52 50 43 37 34 31 29 27 26 25 23 21
A lot

21 22 41 43 43 40 38 46 42 43 30 41
Percent Pretty much A little

20 19

7 9 11 4 17 7 7 8 10 7 4 12 17 12

17 21 24 20 29 20 31 26
Not at all

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

48

Personal relationships
• What youth with disabilities say about:
– their ability to make friends; and – feelings of being liked, cared about, and paid attention to.

49

Youth with disabilities’ views of the ease of making friends
How much the statement, “you can make friends easily” is like you: Not at all like you, 4% A little like you, 24%

Very much like you, 72%

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

50

Views of the ease of making friends, by disability category
How much statement “you can make friends easily” is like you:
Mental retardation Learning disabilities Multiple disabilities Visual impairment Orthopedic impairment Emotional disturbance Speech impairment Traumatic brain injury Other health impairment Hearing impairment Dear-blindness Autism

75 74 71 71 70 70 66 66 66 62 59 42
Percent A lot like me A little like me

24

18 7 23 3 25 4 24 5 25 5 23 7 30 4 28 6 28 6 28 10 31 10 20

Not at all like me

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

51

Youth with disabilities’ views of being disliked by others
During the past week, how often youth felt people disliked him or her
Youth with disabilities

61

29

4 7***

General population

68

28

31

Percent

Rarely or never

Sometimes

A lot of the time

Most or all of the time

Statistical significance: ***p < .001 for comparison of youth with disabilities and in the general population. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, youth interview, 1990

52

Frequency of youth’s feelings of being disliked by others, by disability category
Traumatic brain injury Mental retardation Emotional disturbance Deaf-blindness Multiple disabilities Hearing impairment Autism Other health impairment Orthopedic impairment Learning disability Speech impairment Visual impairment
Rarely or never

67 48 65 56 49 59 48 63 67 62 62 75
Percent Sometimes A lot of the time

14 38 4 10 21 5 9 31 5 8 39 4 8 32 2 7 37 9 6 26 5 6 22 5 6 28 4 6 29 4 5 20 32
Most or all the time

16

3

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

53

Youth with disabilities’ perceptions of being cared about
Extent of feeling cared about by: Friends
Youth with disabilities General population

51 51

34 34

9 13

6 2

Parents/guardians
Youth with disabilities General population

84 83

10 3 3 12 2 3

Other adults
Youth with disabilities General population
Very much Quite a bit

55 59
Percent Somewhat

26 29
Very little or not at all

13

6 8 4

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, youth interviews, 1999

54

Youth’s perceptions of being cared about, by disability category
Orthopedic impairment Speech impairment Multiple disabilities Visual impairment Traumatic brain injury Hearing impairment Learning disability Deaf-blindness Mental retardation Other health impairment Emotional disturbance Autism

60 53 60 62 57 48 53 49 50 50 43 38
Parents Friends

91 89 87 86 86 86 85 81 81 81 80 76

Percent reporting being cared about "very much"

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003

55

Youth with disabilities’ views of being paid attention to by their families
Youth with disabilities

59***

23***

11

7

General population

31

39

23

7

Percent reporting family pays attention to them: Very much Quite a bit Some Very little or not at all

Statistical significance: ***p < .001 for comparisons of youth with disabilities and in the general population. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, youth interview, 1999

56

Youth’s feelings of being paid attention to by their families, by disability category
Multiple disabilities Mental retardation Orthopedic impairment Traumatic brain injury Learning disability Hearing impairment Deaf-blindness Speech impairment Visual impairment Autism Other health impairment Emotional disturbance

72 65 64 61 60 59 56 56 56 52 51 50
Percent Very much Quite a bit Some

15 16 22 18 22 29 25 30 30 23 31 27

7 6 8 11 13 1 14 7 12 6 7 5 11 8 9 4

8 5 15 10 8 10 13 10

Very little or not at all

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003.

57

Youth’s expectations
• Future educational attainment • Future employment/ financial independence • Attainment after high school

58

Expectations for future education attainment
Youth expects 1 Graduate from high school with a regular diploma Youth with disabilities Youth in the general population Attend school after high school Youth with disabilities Youth in the general population
Definitely will

85 99

12 4 1

53 95

34

14*** 5

Percent of youth Probably will Yes Probably or definitely won't No

Statistical significance: ***p < .001 for comparisons of youth with disabilities and in the general population. 1 Youth who have attained outcome are included as “definitely will.” Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003 and National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey (NHES), 1999 youth survey.

59

Youth expects 1 to:

Expectations for future postsecondary school completion
Complete a postsecondary vocational, technical, or trade school Graduate from a 2-year college

26

34

40

34

39

27

Graduate from Youth with disabilitie s Youth in th e general population
Definitely will

25

36 89

39 *** 11

Percent of youth Probably will Probably or definitely won't Yes No

Statistical significance: ***p < .001 for comparisons of youth with disabilities and in the general population. 1 Youth who have attained outcome are included as “definitely will.” Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003 and National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey (NHES), 1993 and 1999 youth surveys.

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Youth’s and parent’s expectations1 for youth’s future education attainment
Graduate from high school Youth expects Parent expects
85 59 53 29 39 34 32 28 12 12 14 4

Attend postsecondary school Youth expects Parent expects

Complete a postsecondary vocational, technical or trade school Youth expects 26 Parent expects 15 34 Graduate from a 2-year college Youth expects 34 Parent expects 13 41 Graduate from a 4-year college Youth expects 25 Parent expects 11 28
Definitely will
1

34 51 39

40

27 46

36 62

39

Percent Probably will

Probably or definitely won’t

Youth who have attained outcome are included as “definitely will.” Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003; Wave 1 (2001) parent interviews.

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Youth’s expectations for postsecondary school attendance, by disability category
Hearing impairment Visual impairment Traumatic brain injury Orthopedic impairment Speech impairment Emotional disturbance Deaf-blindness Learning disability Other health impairment Autism Multiple disabilities Mental retardation

80 70 67 62 59 56 55 53 50 47 47 38
Definitely will

15 24 24 24 31 30 26 34 36 37 38 42 14

5 6 9 11 14

19 13 15 16 15 21

Probably will

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003.

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What are the outcomes of school leavers up to 4 years after high school?

• Wave 3 (2005) attainments of Wave 2 (2003) youth interview/survey respondents • Attainments reported here are for youth who responded to the Wave 2 interview/survey.

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Educational attainment of out-of-secondary school youth in 2005
High school graduation Definitely expected to Graduated from Attend postsecondary school Definitely expected to Enrolled since high school Currently attending

85 77

53 43 26
Percent

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey 2003 (expectations), and Wave 3 parent/youth interview, 2005 (attainment), restricted to youth who responded to Wave 2 interview/survey.

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Postsecondary school participation by 2005
Complete a postsecondary vocational, technical or trade school Definitely expect to Enrolled since leaving high school Graduated Graduate from a 2-year college Definitely expect to Enrolled since leaving high school Graduated Graduate from a 4-year college Definitely expect to Enrolled since leaving high school Graduated

26 12 5 34 33 4 25 9 1
Percent

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003 (expectations), and Wave 3 parent/youth interviews/survey, 2005 (participation), restricted to youth who responded to Wave 2 interviews/survey.

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Ever enrolled in postsecondary school as of 2005, by disability category
Hearing impairment Visual impairment Autism Orthopedic impairment Traumatic brain injury Other health impairment Speech impairment Learning disabilities Multiple disabilities Emotional disturbance Mental retardation

79 79 72 66 62 59 53 43 43 36 26
Percent

NOTE: There are too few youth with deaf-blindness to report separately. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 3 parent/youth interviews/survey, 2005.

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Expectations for employment and financial independence

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Expectations for future employment and financial independence
Get a paid job 1 Youth expects t o Parent expects youth to Be financially self-supporting Youth expects t o Parent expects youth to
Definitely will
1

95 88

1 4 1 11

65 47
Probably will

29 40

6 13

Percent of youth Probably or definitely won't

Youth who have attained outcome are included as “definitely will.” Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003 (youth’s expectations) and Wave 1 parent interviews/survey, 2001 (parents’ expectations), restricted to parents of youth who responded to Wave 2 interviews/survey.

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Youth’s expectations for paid employment1, by disability category
Learning disability Hearing impairment Other health impairment Speech impairment Emotional disturbance Visual impairment Traumatic brain injury Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Orthopedic impairment Deaf-blindness

97 96 96 96 93 93 93 86 86 84 82 77
Percent of youth

3 3 1 4 4 6 1 7 7 10 4 11 3 11 5 18 1

Definitely will Probably will Definitely or probably won’t Youth who have attained outcome are included as “definitely will.” Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003.
1

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Youth’s expectations for financial independence, by disability category
Learning disability Visual impairment Other health impairment Emotional disturbance Traumatic brain injury Speech impairment Hearing impairment Orthopedic impairment Deaf-blindness Mental retardation Autism Multiple disabilities

71 69 67 66 62 61 58 47 40 37 34 29 43 46 36 45 48

25 29 27 28 36 36 36 17 14 15 23 25

4 3 6 6 2 4 7

Definitely will
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003.

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Employment and financial independence of out-of-secondary school youth in 2005
Get a paid job In 2003, definitely expected to
Worked for pay in past 2 years

95 85 65 19 34 39 7 $8.08

Be financially self-supporting In 2003, definitely expected to Hourly wage in 2005 More than $9.00/hour
$7.01 - $9.00/hour $5.15 - $7.00/hour Less than $5.15/hour Average wage of out-of-school youth in 2005

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 2 youth interviews/survey, 2003 (expectations) and Wave 3 parent/youth interviews/survey, 2005 (employment and earnings), restricted to youth who responded to Wave 2 interviews/survey.

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Employment of out-of-secondary school youth in 2005, by disability category
Learning disabilities Speech impairment Other health impairment Emotional disturbance Hearing impairment Visual impairment Mental retardation Autism Traumatic brain injury Multiple disabilities Deaf-blindness Orthopedic impairment

88 86 86 84 83 74 74 72 72 59 57 56
Percent employed in past 2 years

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 3 parent/youth interviews/survey, 2005 ), restricted to youth who

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Hourly wage of out-of-secondary school youth in 2005, by disability category
Visual impairment Multiple disabilities Orthopedic impairment Learning disabilities Emotional disturbance Other health impairment Hearing impairment Traumatic brain injury Mental retardation Speech impairment Autism

$11.53 $9.34 $8.41 $8.14 $8.07 $7.92 $7.67 $7.61 $7.54 $7.51 $7.20
Mean hourly wage

NOTE: There are too few working youth with deaf-blindness to report separately. Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research, National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), Wave 3 parent/youth interviews/survey, 2005; restricted to youth who responded to

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What’s next for NLTS2?

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What’s newly available from NLTS2 on the web?
• Reports
– Family Involvement in the Educational Development of Youth With Disabilities – After High School: A First Look at the Postschool Experiences of Youth With Disabilities – Changes Over Time in the Early Postschool Outcomes of Youth With Disabilities

• Fact Sheets
– The Self-Determination of Youth With Disabilities – High School Completion by Youth With Disabilities – School Behavior and Disciplinary Experiences of Youth With Disabilities

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What’s newly available from NLTS2 on the web? (continued)
• NLTS2 Data Briefs (distributed by NCSET)

– The Transition Planning Process – Family Expectations and Involvement for Youth With Disabilities
• Data tables

– Wave 2 school surveys – Student assessments

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What’s next?
• Reports
– The academic achievement and functional performance of youth with disabilities – The attitudes and expectations of youth with disabilities – The postschool outcomes of youth up to 4 years after high school – Participation in risk behaviors by young adults with disabilities – Factors related to the outcomes of youth with disabilities up to 4 years after high school

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What’s next? (continued)
• Fact sheets

– Youth with learning disabilities – Youth with autism
• Data tables

– Wave 3 parent and youth interview/survey
• Wave 4 data collection

– Final course transcripts for 2006 school leavers

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For more information

www.nlts2.org

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