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10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 1

EE543
Power System Stability
Satish J Ranade
EUMP Distance Education Services
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 2
Transients and Dynamics
Time scale Phenomenon Result

S Lightning Overvoltage
mS Switching Insulation Failure
mS Abnormal Transient Fault

.1 S Breaker Operations Instability
1 S Mechanical Dynamics
Many Seconds Load Dynamics Collapse
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 3
Power System Stability
Definition (Ch.13)
The ability of a power system to reach a new
steady state or equilibrium after a
disturbance.
Interconnected synchronous generators
must settle to a common, constant speed
Voltages and power flow must settle to
reasonable values ( otherwise relays will
trip breakers)


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 4
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 5
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 6
Power System Stability
A disturbance, e.g., fault causes generator speeds,
system voltages and power flow to change over time
Stability post-disturbance quantities become constant
SPEED
VOLT.
STABLE
UNSTABLE
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 7
Power System Stability
Manifestations Angle Stability

Fault Occurs Generator Terminal voltage V
goes to zero
Generator electrical real power output Pe goes to
zero
Turbine is still putting out mechanical power Pm
Generator speeds up builds up kinetic energy
Fault is cleared

Can generator get back to constant --
synchronous speed?

Time scale of 1-10 Seconds
Pm Pe
V
Large System Infinite Bus
Voltage and frequency ~constant
SPEED
Line Real Power P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 8
Power System Stability
Manifestations Angle Stability

Can generator get back to constant --synchronous
speed?
Only if it can get rid of excess KE

Excess KE needs to go into the infinite bus through the
line?

Will it? What happens if it cant?

Stability means returning to synchronous speed

In a multi-machine system it means settling at a
common speed
KE
Builds up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 9
Power System Stability
Manifestations Angle Stability

The process of power transfer across the line to get rid
of excess KE is inherently oscillatory

The infinite bus is trying to synchronize the
generator or bring it back into step

Stability requires synchronizing torque

In addition damping torque to make oscillation
decay this comes from the machine as well as from
control systems


KE
Builds up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 10
Power System Stability
Manifestations Voltage Stability

Line Opens
Load Voltage Drops
Many loads keep power constant --Current goes up
Voltage drops further Reactive power loss goes up
. Generator hits limit
Generator voltage drops

Voltage collapses
Time scale of 1 seconds to minutes to hours
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 11
Power System Stability
Terminology

First Swing (Transient Stability)

Generator speeds swing around to common speed
(Better definition later..)Little or no control action from
exciters.. ~ 1 Second
Transient Stability
Multiple Swings 1-5 Sec; Field action most important
Mid-Term
Past 1 second control action is significant;Issue is oscillations
and damping. This term is not used as much any more
Long Term
Past 1 second and including all control action
Includes voltage stability effects
This has become the standard study

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 12
Power System Stability
Terminology

Rotor Angle Stability

Refers to conditions in which generator dynamics is
significant and voltages less important
Steady state Stability
Slow incremental changes that ultimately makes the
system unstable ( associated with maximum power transfer)
Small signal stability
Response to small changes that can be analyzed using linear
models.

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 13
Power System Stability
Terminology

Voltage Stability

Inability to maintain voltage because of reactive power deficit

Voltage Collapse

Voltage instability leading to low-voltage profile
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 14
Power System Stability
Comment on Terminology

Its all one big ball of wax!

Distinctions are made for a number of reasons

Ease of analysis or computation

To emphasize/identify components and controls that have major
impact

A systems may be more prone to one type of stability than the other

Modern long-term stability simulations capture most of the effects

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 15
Power System Stability
Purpose of Stability Study


Planning Transmission Requirements
Voltage Support ( VAR Supply)


Design Controls Excitation, Power system
Stabilizers, FACTS devices
Relay Settings
Load Shedding

Operations Operating Margins

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 16
Angle Stability Revisited-
Machine Connected to Infinite Bus

Fault makes generator electric Power zero

Generator accelerates. Can generator get back to
constant --synchronous speed?

Only if it can get rid of excess KE

Excess KE needs to go into the infinite bus through the
line? Will it? What happens if it cant?

Stability means returning to synchronous speed

KE
Builds up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 17
Power System Stability
First swing stability-Background needed

KE
Builds
up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P
Power flow characteristics in
Network
-What governs power flow in a line?

Dynamics of Turbine generator
-How does a generator change speed?

How does generator dynamics affect
Power flow?
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 18
Power System Stability
Modeling
KE
Builds
up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
P
P
Mechanical Model --- Swing Equation

Network Model --- Power Angle Equation
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 19
Power System Stability
Modeling Assumptions
Generator dynamics
KE
Builds
up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
P
P
Mechanical power is constant

Rotor speed changes SLOWLY as compared to 60 Hz

Voltage and current can be represented by slowly varying phasors

Real power can be calculated from phasor models

System remains balanced (Some Unbalanced faults can be handled)
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 20
Power System Stability
KE
Builds
up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
P
P
Summary Lecture 1
Many forms of instability

First Swing Transient Stability

Ability of system to reach a steady state condition after a disturbance with
machines running at common speed

Transient Stability

After disturbance machine speeds turn back to a common speed once

Key Aspect

Excess KE from accelarated machines should transfer through the network to decelerated
machines to restore speed

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 21
Power System Stability
Lecture 2 Mechanical Aspects and Swing Equation

Fault Occurs Generator Terminal voltage V
goes to zero,Generator electrical real power
output Pe goes to zero

Turbine is still putting out mechanical power Pm
Generator speeds up builds up kinetic energy

Fault is cleared;Can generator get back to
constant --synchronous speed?

Pm Pe
V
Large System Infinite Bus
Voltage and frequency ~constant
SPEED
Line Real Power P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 22
Power System Stability
Lecture 2 Mechanical Aspects and Swing Equation

Can generator get back to constant --
synchronous speed?

-How does speed change in a disturbance
-Mechanical system model
-SWING EQUATIONDYNAMICS
-How do speed changes ( angle changes) affect
power flow?
-Machine model
-Power angle equation
-Given these models can energy be transferred to
bring speeds back?

Pm Pe
V
Large System Infinite Bus
Voltage and frequency ~constant
SPEED
Line Real Power P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 23
First swing stability-Dynamics


In steady state synchronous Machines run at
synchronous speed Pm Pe
Tm
m
Te

m
= Mechanical position of rotor rad

m
= mechanical speed in radians per second=d
m
/dt

m
= mechanical accelaration rad/sec
2
= d
m
/dt= d
2

m
/dt
2


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 24
First swing stability-Dynamics


In steady state synchronous Machines run at
synchronous speed Pm Pe
Tm
m
Te
P = number of poles

msyn
= (2/P) syn
syn =2 f Electrical frequency in rad/s
f = electrical frequency in Hz

Position and speed can be measured in mechanical (actual)
or electrical units
= (P/2)
m
electrical radians per second


= (P/2)
m
electrical radians per second
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 25
First swing stability-Dynamics


In steady state synchronous Machines run at
synchronous speed Pm Pe
Tm
m
Te

m
4 poles at 60 Hz

syn = 377 el. Rad/sec

msyn
=188.5 Rad/sec (1800 rpm)
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 26
Power System Stability
First swing stability-Dynamics

Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te = J
m

If mechanical torque Tm > Electrical torque Te speed
m
goes up

If mechanical torque Tm < Electrical torque Te speed
m
goes down
Normally write this in terms of Power, speed in electrical rad/s and
units of PU
Tm Te
Tm Te = J d
m
/dt
Tm Te = J d
2

m
/dt
2
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 27
First swing stability-Dynamics


Mechanical position
and speed
Pm Pe
Tm
m
Te

m

m
Mechanical position with respect
to stationary reference (rad.)

m
Mechanical speed with respect to
stationary reference(rad/sec)

m
= d
m
/ dt


m
=
m
dt


Fixed Reference
Rotor spins
CCW at speed
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 28
First swing stability-
Dynamics

Mechanical position
and speed
Pm Pe
Tm
m
Te

m

m
Mechanical position with respect
to reference rotating at
synchronous speed
msyn

m
Mechanical speed with respect to
rotating reference (rad/sec)

m
=
msyn
dt +
m
=
msyn
t +
m


d
m
/ dt =
m
-
msyn
= d
m
/ dt

msyn
Reference rotates
At Synchronous
Speed
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 29
First swing stability-Dynamics
Mechanical position
and speed Pm Pe
Tm
m
Te

m
-
msyn
= 0 =>
m
constant

m
-
msyn
= 0 =>
m
increases

m
-
msyn
= 0 =>
m
decreases

Think about watching the hash mark on the
rotor under a strobe. If the rotor turns faster
than the strobe the hash advances at the
difference speed

msyn
Reference rotates
At Synchronous
Speed

m
-
msyn
= d
m
/ dt
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 30
First swing stability-
Dynamics


Back to Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
J d
2
m /dt
2 =
Tm Te = Ta Ta accelerating torque

d / dt =
m
-
msyn


Using P=T and dividing by Base MVA SB

(
m
/SB) J d
2
m /dt
2
= Pm - Pe = Pa per unit

Tm Te
Tm Te = J d
2

m
/dt
2
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 31
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
(2m/
msyn
2
) ((1/2 Jmsyn
2
)/SB) J d
2
/dt
2
= Pm - Pe
(2
pu
/syn) ((1/2Jmsyn
2
)/SB) J d
2
/dt
2
= Pm - Pe = Pa
m/msyn =
pu
Electrical
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 32
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
H=(1/2) J
msyn
2
/SB = KE at synchronous speed/ Base MVA

H is called machine inertia in seconds
(2
pu
/syn) ((1/2Jmsyn
2
)/SB) J d
2
/dt
2
= Pm - Pe = Pa
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 33
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
Finally, since syn = 2f

pu
d /dt = ( f/H )(Pm Pe) d / dt = syn

Equivalently,

pu
d
2
/ dt
2
= ( f/H )( Pm Pe) d / dt = syn

These are called the SWING EQUATIONS
Note: and are NOT in pu; f is electrical frequency in HZ
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 34
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
Example ( text 13.1)
3 phase 60 Hz 500 MVA 15kV 32 Pole H=2 S ;
Initially Pm=Pe=1 pu =10 deg
Find electrical and mechanical synchronous speed
swing equation

A fault reduces Pe to zero; find and at 3 cycles
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 35
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
Example ( text 13.1)
3 phase 60 Hz 500 MVA 15kV 32 Pole H=2 S ; Initially Pm=Pe=1 pu =10 deg
syn = 377 el. Rad/s always for f=60 Hz
msyn = (1/P) syn = 23.56 rad/s
Swing equation

pu
d
2
/ dt
2
= 94.25( Pm Pe) d / dt = 377
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 36
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
Example ( text 13.1)
d / dt = 94.25 rad/s
2
(0)=377 rad/s

= 94.25 t + 377 (0.05)= 379.356

d / dt = 377 = 94.25t (0)=10deg

(t) = 47.125 t
2
+ o (.05) =16.75 deg
A fault reduces Pe to zero; find and at 3 cycles(.05s)
Assume
pu
~1. Since Pe=0 and Pm=1
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 37
First swing stability-
Dynamics
Generator dynamics
Pm Pe
Tm Te
Example ( text 13.1)
(0)=377 rad/s = 94.25 t + 377 (0.05)= 379.356
(0)=10deg = 47.125 t
2
+ o (.05) = =16.75 deg
Summary : Speed increases at a rate dictated by power imbalance and
inertia
Angle increases depending on difference between machine
speed and synchronous speed
t

377

3~
.05 S
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 38
Power System Stability
Lecture 2 Mechanical Aspects and Swing Equation

Can generator get back to constant --
synchronous speed?

-How does speed change in a disturbance
-Mechanical system model
-SWING EQUATIONDYNAMICS
-How do speed changes ( angle changes) affect
power flow?
-Machine model
-Power angle equation
-Given these models can energy be transferred to
bring speeds back?

Pm Pe
V
Large System Infinite Bus
Voltage and frequency ~constant
SPEED
Line Real Power P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 39
First swing stability-Swing Equation
A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe
Pm Pe
jXL jXd
+
E/
Pe
V/0
(Infinite Bus)
Pm
Speed change is governed by the Swing Equation
d
2
/dt
2
= (f/H) (Pm-Pe)
d /dt = -syn
SUMMARY Lecture 1
Now need to know how Pe changes during a disturbance
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 40
Power System Stability
Manifestations Angle Stability

Can generator get back to constant --synchronous
speed?
Only if it can get rid of excess KE

Excess KE needs to go into the infinite bus through the
line?

Will it? What happens if it cant?

Stability means returning to synchronous speed

In a multi-machine system it means settling at a
common speed
KE
Builds up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 41
First swing stability-Swing Equation
A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe
Pm Pe
jXL jXd
+
E/
Pe
V/0
(Infinite Bus)
Pm
Speed change is governed by the Swing Equation
d
2
/dt
2
= (f/H) (Pm-Pe)
d /dt = -syn
SUMMARY Lecture 1
Transient Stability means that after a disturbance the
generator will return to Steady state operation at
synchronous speed

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 42
First swing stability-Swing Equation
A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe
Pm Pe
jXL jXd
+
E/
Pe
V/0
(Infinite Bus)
Pm
Speed change is governed by the Swing Equation
d
2
/dt
2
= (f/H) (Pm-Pe)
d /dt = -syn
SUMMARY Lecture 1
Now need to know how Pe changes during a disturbance
Need Generator and Network Model
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 43
Classical model
Per phase model
The generator reactance X= Xd Transient Reactance
E is the phasor induced voltage
Magnitude of E freezes at the value
just prior to disturbance
Power System Stability
First swing stability-Generator Electrical

E/
I
Vt/0
E/ = Vt
pf
/0 + I
pf
(Ra+jXd)
Vt
pf
, It
pf
are terminal voltage and current before the fault
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 44
System is Modeled with SLOWLY VARYING PHASORS

Vm t ( ) 1 .1 sin t ( ) pu
u t ( ) t
eo 377 e t ( ) eo sin t ( )
v t ( ) 2 Vm t ( )
.
cos e t ( ) t
.
u t ( ) ( )
.
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 45
SLOWLY VARYING PHASOR
Original amplitude and phase modulated wave
Vm t ( ) 1 .1 sin t ( ) pu
u t ( ) t
eo 377 e t ( ) eo sin t ( )
v t ( ) 2 Vm t ( )
.
cos e t ( ) t
.
u t ( ) ( )
.
u t ( ) t t sin t ( )
.
v t ( ) 2 Vm t ( )
.
cos eo t
.
u t ( ) ( )
.
Write as a cosine at o and a tome varying phase (t)
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 46
SLOWLY VARYING PHASOR
u t ( ) t t sin t ( )
.
v t ( ) 2 Vm t ( )
.
cos eo t
.
u t ( ) ( )
.
1.084147
1
Vm t ( )
1 0 t
0 0.5 1
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
1.841471
0
u t ( )
1 0 t
0 0.5 1
0
1
2
Slowly Varying Magnitude Slowly Varying Phase
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 47
SLOWLY VARYING
PHASOR

1.531171
1.529455
v t ( )
2 cos 377 t
.
( )
.
.2 0 t
0 0.05 0.1 0.15
2
1
0
1
2
1.531171
1.529455
v t ( )
2 cos 377 t
.
( )
.
1 .8 t
0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95
2
1
0
1
2
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 48
The N- node network can be represented by the admittance matrix equation

I = Y V

The current injected into node m
Im =
N
m=1
Ymn Vn

The Complex power into node m is

Sm=Vm (
N
m=1
Ymn Vn)
*
Power System Stability
First swing stability-Power Transmission
How does power change with speed and rotor angle?
E1/
I
E2/
I
V1
V2
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 49
Let Vm=|Vm|/m Vn=|Vn|/n Ymn=|Ymn|/mn

Starting with

Sm=Vm (
N
m=1
Ymn Vn)
*


Pm=Re(Sm)=|Vm|
n
m=1
|Ymn| | Vn| cos (m - n - mn )
Qm=Im(Sm)=|Vm|
n
m=1
|Ymn| | Vn| sin (m - n - mn )





Power System Stability
First swing stability-Power Transmission

E1/
I
E2/
I
V1
V2
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 50
Real Power Pm=Re(Sm)=|Vm|
N
m=1
|Ymn| | Vn| cos (m - n - mn )
Real power flow is controlled by voltage phase angles m,
n

For a line ( or generator with resistance and capacitance neglected, i.e., pure
inductive reactance


|Vm|/m Pmn Vn|/n

Power System Stability
First swing stability-Power Transmission

jX
+
+
Y =
1/jX
1/jX
-1/jX
-1/jX
Pmn= Vm Vn sin (m - n ) /X
Real power goes from higher phase angle to lower phase angle
To make power go down a line need to make sending end phase angle larger
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 51
First swing stability
Power Angle Equation

A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe
Pm Pe
jXL
+
E/ Pe
jXd
V/0
(Infinite Bus)
Pm
If changes Pe changes <= Pe= E V sin () /(X+XL)

If Pm or Pe changes speed changes <=Pm Pe = (H/ f) d /dt

How are the two related?
+
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 52
First swing stability
Power Angle Equation
A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe Suppose we increase Pm then speed
increases
Pm Pe
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Fixed (Infinite Bus)
Pm
If the speed of the generator increases the phase angle of induced
voltage increases
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
1
0
1
1
1
v t ( )
e t ( )
0.2 0 t
Inf.
Bus
60~
Gen
60.6~
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 53
First swing stability

A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe Suppose we increase Pm then speed increases
Pm Pe
If the speed of the generator increases the phase angle of induced voltage increases
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
1
0
1
1
1
v t ( )
e t ( )
0.2 0 t
Inf.
Bus
60~
Gen
60.6~
can be constant only if the frequencies are identical -- Synchronous
d /dt = -syn
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 54
Power System Stability
First swing stability
Lecture 3

Qualitative Analysis
Examples of developing Swing
Equations and Power Angle Curves
Equal Area Criterion of Stability

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 55
Angle Stability Revisited-
Machine Connected to Infinite Bus

Fault makes generator electric Power zero

Generator accelerates. Can generator get back to
constant --synchronous speed?

Only if it can get rid of excess KE

Excess KE needs to go into the infinite bus through the
line? Will it? What happens if it cant?

Stability means returning to synchronous speed

KE
Builds up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 56
Power System Stability
First swing stability-Background needed

KE
Builds
up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
SPEED
Line Real Power P
P
P
Power flow characteristics in
Network
-What governs power flow in a line?

Dynamics of Turbine generator
-How does a generator change speed?

How does generator dynamics affect
Power flow?
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 57
Power System Stability
Modeling Assumptions

KE
Builds
up
Excess KE
Needs to be removed
P
P
Mechanical power is constant

Rotor speed changes SLOWLY as compared to 60 Hz

Voltage and current can be represented by slowly varying phasors

Real power can be calculated from phasor models

System remains balanced (Some Unbalanced faults can be handled)
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 58
Classical model

The generator reactance X= Xd
E is the phasor induced voltage
It is assumed that the magnitude
of E freezes at the value
just prior to disturbance
Power System Stability
First swing stability-Generator Electrical

E/
I
Vt/0
E/ = Vt
pf
/0 + I
pf
(Ra+jXd)
Vt
pf
, It
pf
are terminal voltage and current before the fault
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 59
First swing stability
Lecture 2 Summary
A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line
Initially Pm=Pe Pm Pe
jXL jXd
+
E/
Pe
V/0
Fixed (Infinite Bus)
Pm
Stability is governed by the Swing Equation
d
2
/dt
2
= (f/H) (Pm-Pe)
d /dt = -syn
For our system Pe = E V sin () /(X+XL)
Swing Equation

Power Angle
Equation
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 60
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion


A generator connected to an infinite
bus through a line. Initially Pm=Pe
Pm Pe
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Fixed (Infinite Bus)
Pm
Stability is governed by the Swing Equation
d
2
/dt
2
= (f/H) (Pm-Pe)
d /dt = -syn
Pe = E V sin () /(X+XL)
Swing Equation


Power Angle
Equation
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 61
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Stable Equilibriumsmall increase in mechanical power

At D is decreasing but > 0
increases further say to point E
By now suppose is back to zero and decreasing
Thus becomes < 0 as the generator continues to slow
Since <0 decreases towards B First swing stable!

Pm
Pe

P
o
A
Pm1
B
C
D
E
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 62
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Stable Equilibriumsmall increase in mechanical power

Pm
Pe

P
o
A
Pm1
B
C
D
E
-syn
Time

First swing
Stable
1
0
0
0
1
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 63
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Stable Equilibriumsmall increase in mechanical power

Pm
Pe

P
o
A
Pm1
B
C
D
E
-syn
Time

1
0
0
0
1
Equal Speeds at
Points A and E
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 64
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Basic Principle
Two points on the trajectory
A speed=1 angle = 1 time = t1
B speed=1 angle = 2 time = t2>t1

d/dt[(d/dt)
2
] = (d/dt)(d
2
/dt
2
)

} }
=
2
1
2
1
] [ }] ) {( [
2
2
2
o
o
o o
o d dt
dt
d
t
t
dt
d
dt
d
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 65
}
} }
o
o
= =
o
o
o
t
= e e e e
o
t
= e e
2
1
2 t t 1 t t
2
1
2 t
1 t
dt
d
d ] Pe Pm [
H
f
| ) syn ( | ) syn (
d ] Pe Pm [
H
f
dt }] ) syn {( [
2 2
2
} }
=
2
1
2
1
] [ }] ) {( [
2
2
2
o
o
o o
o d dt
dt
d
t
t
dt
d
dt
d
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Basic Principle
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 66
}
o
o
= =
o
t
= e e e e
2
1
2 t t 1 t t
d ] Pe Pm [
H
f
| ) syn ( | ) syn (
2 2
If (t1 )= (t2)
0
2
1
=
}

Pe]d [Pm
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Basic Principle
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 67
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Basic Principle
}
o
o
= =
o
t
= e e e e
2
1
2 t t 1 t t
d ] Pe Pm [
H
f
| ) syn ( | ) syn (
2 2
Relates to changes in KE

If change in KE can be recovered 1 machine-infinite bus
system will be stable
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 68
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Basic Principle

Pm
Pe

P
o
A
Pm1
C
E
2
0 Pe]d 1 [Pm Pe]d 1 [Pm
1
x
x
0
= +
} }
x
x
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 69
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Application
1. Establish initial conditions
2. Define sequence of events and network
for each event
3. Develop Power angle curves
4. Apply EAC

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 70
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Example 1

Stability under small change in mechanical power
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Pm
S
Xd`=0.2
XL=0.2 pu.
V

1 :=
S 0.5 e
j acos 0.8 ( )
:= S 0.4 0.3i + = pu
I
S
V

\
|
|
.

:= I 0.4 0.3i =
E' V

j Xd' XL + ( ) I + := E' 0.849 = pu arg E' ( ) 8.13 deg =


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 71
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Example 1
Stability under small change in mechanical power
A 10 MVA, 0.8 pf lagging, 4160 V, 60Hz, three-phase
generator supplies 50% rated power at .8 pf lagging
to a 4160 V infinite bus.
Determine if the generator is first-swing stable if the
prime mover power is increased by 10%
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Pm
S
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 72
Equal Area Criterion
Example 1 Stability under small change in mechanical power
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Pm
S
Xd`=0.2
XL=0.2 pu.
1. Initial
V

1 :=
S 0.5 e
j acos 0.8 ( )
:= S 0.4 0.3i + = pu
I
S
V

\
|
|
.

:= I 0.4 0.3i =
E' V

j Xd' XL + ( ) I + := E' 1.131 = pu arg E' ( ) 8.13 deg =


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 73
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Example 1 Stability under small change in mechanical power
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Pm
S
Xd`=0.2
XL=0.2 pu.
Pe
0
Re S ( ) := Pe
0
0.4 =
pu
initial power
Pm Pe
0
:= Pm 0.4 = pu
o
0
8.13deg :=
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 74
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Example 1 Stability under small change in mechanical power
jXL
+
E/
Pe
jXd
V/0
Pm
S
Xd`=0.2
XL=0.2 pu.
2. Power angle equation before and after change in Pm

Pe= Pmax Sin() Pmax= EV /(Xd`+XL)
Pmax 2.828 = Pe o
( )
Pmax sin o
( )
:=
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 75
Pm
Pe

P
o
A
Pm1
C
E
2
0 ]d ) ( Pe 1 [Pm ]d ) ( Pe 1 [Pm
1
x
x
0
= o + o
} }
x
x
First swing stability-Equal Area Criterion
Small change in mechanical power
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 76
Pm
Pe

P
o
A
Pm1
C
E
2 x
0 1 2 3 4
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Pe o
( )
Pm
Pm1
o
Guess o
2
10deg :=
Given
o
0
o
2
o Pm1 Pe o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d

(
(
(
(

0
Find o
2
( )
9.77 deg =
ox asin
Pm1
Pmax
|

\
|
|
.
:=
ox 8.949 deg =
Remember
o
0
8.13 deg :=
EAC
Equal Area Criterion-Small change in mechanical power
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 77
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault


1
2
3
The infinite bus receives 1 pu real power at 0.95 power
factor lagging
A fault at bus 3 is cleared by opening lines from 1-3 and 2-3
when the generator power angle Reaches 40 deg.
Is the system first swing stable?
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 78
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Example 2

1
2
3
+
V
-
Zt
jXd` Z1
Z2
Z3
+
E`
-
I
I
+
Vt
-
S
3
2
1
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 79
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Example 2
+
V
-
Zt
jXd` Z1
Z2
Z3
+
E`
-
I
I
+
Vt
-
S
3
2
1
Data (Resistances are zero)
Xd=0.3 Zt=j0.1 Z1=Z3=j0.2 Z2=j0.1 V=1 pu
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 80
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Example 2
+
V
-
Zt jXd` Z1
Z2 Z3
+
E`
-
I
I
+
Vt
-
S
3
2
1
1. Initial
S=(1/0.95)/acos(0.95) I=(S/V)
*
= 1.05/-18.2
o
Xeq= (Xd+Xt)+X1||(X2+X3)=0.52 pu
E/ = V + jXeq I =1.28/23.95
o
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 81
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
2. Events
Prefault Steady State
Fault three phase fault at bus 3
Post fault Line 2-3 1-3 open
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 82
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
3a. Pre-fault Power Angle curve
+
V
-
Zt jXd` Z1
Z2 Z3
+
E`
-
I
I
+
Vt
-
S
3
2
1
Xeq= (Xd+Xt)+X1||(X2+X3)=0.52 pu
E/ = V + jXeq I =1.28/23.95
o
V=1/0
Pe = E V sin /Xeq = 2.46 sin

Note = 23.95
o
Pe=1
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 83
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
3b. During-fault Power Angle curve
+
V
-
Zt jXd` Z1
Z2 Z3
+
E`
-
I
I
+
Vt
-
S
3
2
1
Zth
jXd`
+
E`
-
I
+
Vt
-
1
+
Vth
-
Zt
Vth=0.33 V

Zth= j 0.066


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 84
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
3c. During-fault Power Angle curve
Zth
jXd`
+
E`
-
I
+
Vt
-
1
+
Vth
-
Zt
Vth=0.33 V

Zth= j 0.066
Xd =0.2
Zt=0.2


Xeq=0.466
Pe = E V sin /Xeq = 0.915 sin
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 85
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
3c. Post Fault Line 1-3 2-3 out
+
V
-
Zt jXd` Z1
+
E`
-
I
I
+
Vt
-
S
3
2
1
Pe = E V sin /Xeq = 2.14 sin
Xeq= .2+.2+.2
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 86
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Pm
Pe

P
o
4. Trajectories and ares
m
cl
Acceleration
Deceleration
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 87
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Pm
Pe

P
o
m
cl
0 ]d ) sin( 14 . 2 [Pm ]d ) sin( 915 . 0 [Pm
m
cl
cl
0
= o + o
} }
Apply EAC
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 88
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + := Error 0.056 =
oo 23.95deg := ocl 40deg := om 55deg :=
Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + := Error 5.245 10
3
=
oo 23.95deg := ocl 40deg := om 56deg :=
Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + := Error 0.019 =
Solve by trial and error Want Error ~0
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 89
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Pm
Pe

P
o
m
cl
23.95 40 55
55
40
24
Rotor swings to 55 degrees then swings back- STABLE
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 90
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Basic Question

How Quickly can the fault be cleared

Relay Time
Breaker Operation
Arc Extinction

If breaker fails then Backup operates >10 ~

Leads to notion of critical clearing time more the better
3-5~
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 91
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault with delayed clearing
oo 23.95deg := ocl 120deg := om 125deg :=
Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + := Error 0.312 =
oo 23.95deg := ocl 120deg := om t oo :=
Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + := Error 0.126 =
oo 23.95deg := ocl 120deg := om 180deg :=
Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + := Error 0.36 =
Fault cleared when rotor angle is 120 deg no solution
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 92
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault
Pm
Pe

P
o
m
cl
23.95 40 55
156
120
24
Rotor swings past 156 degrees UN STABLE
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 93
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault-Critical clearing angle
For stability m < - 1; solve for cl
Error 5.46 10
3
= Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + :=
om t o1 := ocl 113.9deg := oo 23.95deg :=
Error 0.278 = Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + :=
om t o1 := ocl 100deg := oo 23.95deg :=
Error 0.122 = Error
oo
ocl
o 1 .915 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d
ocl
om
o 1 2.14 sin o
( )

( )
(
(
]
d + :=
om t o1 := ocl 120deg := oo 23.95deg :=
o1 27.859deg = o1 asin
1
2.14
|

\
|
|
.
:=
The maximum allowable om is at the unstable intersectionon of the post f ault curve
and Pm
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 94
Equal Area Criterion
Example 2-Fault- Critical Clearing
Pm
Pe

P
0 1
m=- 1 cl=112.9
23.95
156
112
24
Rotor swings past 156 degrees UN STABLE
10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 95
Summary Equal Area
Criterion
For simple systems
-1 machine infinite bus
-2 machines
Provides convenient way to determine first
swing stability
For 2 points on the P- curve that have
equal speed
Accelerating are= Decelerating area

10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 96
Summary Equal Area
Criterion
1 machine to infinite bus
-Machine must return to synchronous
speed
-EAC indicates stable or unstable

Introduced notion of critical clearing


10/10/06 EE543 Lecture 1 (Ranade) 97
Next
Critical Clearing Angle v. Critical Clearing
Time See example 13.8

Numerical Solution
Multimachine System