Lathe Operations. Lathe Tools and their Angle.Week Lesson No. 1. . Work Holding devices and Accessories. 4. 2. 8. Lathe machine – types – specification. 4. Lathe Machine parts-Construction-Function. 6. No. 2. 9. Coolants . Thread – Types – uses – Calculation. 7. 3. Name of the Lesson. 10. Speeds . Feed & depth of cut of Lathe Machine. Taper – Method – Uses – Calculation. (Turning) Introduction of ITI & Manufacturing process. 1. 5.Types – Application. 3.

. Surface Grinding Machine-Parts-Types-Uses Cylindrical Grinding Machine-Parts-Types-Uses. Name of the Lesson. 11. 15. Grinding Diffect and Remindes. 7. 17. 18. Grinding Wheels Mounting & Balancing – Grinding Wheels Dressing & Turning. Heat Treatment Process – Anealing – Normalizing – Case Hardening.Week No. 14. Steel – Classification – Alloings elements. 6. 5. 16. Lesson No. 13. Grinding Wheels – Types – Selection. 12. 8. (Grinding) Grinding – Principle – Process – Safety.

TYPES OF SAFETY • General safety • Personal safety • Machine safety .

Cut the hair short. Don’t use ties and scarves. Don’t wear a or chain. . Keep the over all buttons fastened.PERSONAL SAFETY • • • • • Wear a one piece overall or boiler suit.

• Stop the machine before changing the speed. • Keep the machine clean. • Check the oil level before starting the machine. .MACHINE SAFETY • Switch off the machine immediately if something goes wrong.

. • The maximum diameter(swing)of the work that can be turned.LATHE M/C INTRODUCTION & SPECIFICATION • The length of bed. • The length between centers and the pitch of the lead screw.

TYPES OF LATHES • • • • • • • Speed lathes engine lathes Bench lathes Tool room lathes Capstan and turret lathes Special purpose lathes Automatic lathes .

PARTS OF LATHE M/C • • • • • • • • • • Headstock bed Cross slide Compound rest Tail stock Feed shaft Carriage Lead screw Leg Quick change gear box .

HEAD STOCK • All – Geared Headstock • Cone Pulley Drive Headstock .

CARRAIGE • • • • • • • Tool post Cross – slide Top slide Saddle Saddle lock Compound rest Apron .

BED • • • • Vee slides Heavily ribbed Machined ways Heavy construction fine grain cast iron .

TAIL STOCK • • • • • • • • • Base Body Spindle spindle locking lever Operating screw rod Operating nut Tailstock hand wheel Key Clamping unit .

FEED MECHANISM • • • • • • • Spindle gear Tumbler gear unit Fixed stud gear Change gear unit Quick change gearbox Feed shaft/lead screw Apron mechanism .

TOOL POST • American type tool post • Indexing type tool post • Quick change tool post .

THREE JAW CHUCK • • • • • Backplate Body Jaws Crown wheel Pinion .

SPECIFICATION OF A CHUCK • • • • • Type of chuck Capacity of the chuck Diameter of the body Width of the body Method of mounting to the spindle nose .

FOUR JAW CHUCK • • • • Backplate Body Jaws Square threaded screw shaft .

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 3 & 4 JAW CHUCK • Setting up of work is easy • Has less gripping power • Depth of cut is comparatively less • Heavier jobs cannot be turned • Workpieces cannot be set for eccentric turning • Setting up of work is difficult • More gripping power • More depth of cut can be given • Heavier jobs can be turned • Workpieces can be set for eccentric turning .

TYPES OF LATHE CENTERS • • • • • • • • • • Ordinary centre Half centre Tipped centre Ball centre Pipe centre Revolving centre Insert type centre Self-driving centre Female centre Swivel `v` centre .

TYPE OF CARRIERS • Straight tail carrier • Bent carrier • Clamp type carrier .

DRIVING PLATE • Catch plates • Driving plates • Safety driving plates .

.FACE PLATE • Face-plates with only elongated radial slots • Face-plates with elongated slots and `T`slots • Face-plates with elongated radial slots and additional parallel slots.

STEADY REST • Fixed steady rest • Follower steady rest .

FIXED STEADY REST • • • • • • • • Top portion Lock screw top portion Adjustable pads Work Hinge Bearing pads locking screw Base Lathe bed clamp .

FOLLOWER STEADY REST • • • • Locking screw Bearing pads Adjusting screws Frame .

.FACING • This is an operation of removing metal from the work-face by feeding the tool at right angles to the axis of the work.LATHE MACHINE OPERATION .

• To have a face at right angle to the axis of the work.PURPOSE OF FACING • To have a reference plane to mark and measure the step lengths of work. • To maintain the total length of the work. . • To remove the rough surface on the faces of the work and have finished faces instead.

. using roughing tool or knife tool. • Finish turning using a finishing tool.PLAIN TURNING • Rough turning.

GROOVING • Grooving is the process of turning a grooved form or channel on a cylindrically turned work piece. The shape of the cutting tool and depth to which it is fed determine the shape of the groove. .

TYPE OF GROOVES • Square grooves • Round groove • `V`shaped groove .

. • To permit for easy assembly of mating components.CHAMFERING • To remove burrs and sharp edges from the turned components to make their handling safe. • To provide better appearance.

MATHOD OF CHEFERING • Form tool method • Filling method • Compound slide method .

TYPE OF KNURLING • • • • • Diamond knurling Straight knurling Cross knurling Concave knurling Convex knurling .

TYPES OF MANDRELS • • • • • • Expansion mandrel Gang mandrel Stepped mandrel Screw or threaded mandrel Taper shank mandrel Cone mandrel .

• Work is clamped in the headstock in a chuck or on the faceplate. • Two different method are employed in a lathe for this operation. .DRILLING AND BORING • Drilling is the operation of originating circular holes. The tool employed for this purpose is a drill. The drill is held in the tailstock and fed.

TAPER • A Taper is uniform increase or decrease in diameter along the length of a cylinder. .

TYPES OF TAPER • • • • • • • Self-holding tapers Quick releasing tapers Morse taper Brown and sharpe taper Jarno taper Metric taper Pin taper .

TAPER TURNING METHOD • • • • • Form tool method Compound slide method Tailstock offset method Taper turning method Taper turning attachment method .

SCREW THREAD • A screw thread is a ridge of uniform section formed helically on the surface of a cylindrical body. • An external screw thread is formed on the outer surface of a cylindrical part. .

components when needed • To transmit motion on machine from one unit to another • To make accurate measurements • To apply pressure .USE OF SCREW THREAD • As fasteners to hold together and dismantle.

PART OF SCREW THREAD • • • • • • • • • • Crest Root Flank Thread angle Depth Major diameter Minor diameter Pitch diameter Lead Helix angle .

FORM OF SCREW THREAD • Vee threads • Square threads • Trapezoidal threads .

CUTTING TOOLS CLASSIFICATION • Single point cutting tools • Multi point cutting tools • Form tools .

TYPES OF LATHE CUTIING TOOL • • • • Solid type tools Brazed type tools Inserted bits with holders Throw away type tools .

CUTTTING TOOLS ANGLE • • • • • • Side cutting edge angle End cutting edge angle Top rake angle Side rake angle Front clearance angle Side clearance angle .

the clearance angles and rake angle will change. .EFFECT TOOL SETTING AND TOOL ANGLES • When tools are set above or below the centre line of the work piece.

• • • • Ferrous tool materials Non-ferrous tool materials Carbides Non-metallic materials

• Solid forged tools • Boring bars with inserted bits

• • • •
• • • •

The finished required Depth of cut Tool geometry Properties and rigidity of the cutting tool and its mounting Properties of the workpiece material Rigidity of the workpiece The type of cutting fluid used Rigidity of the machine tool

FEED • • • • Tool geometry Surface finish required on work Rigidity of the tool Coolant used .


15-0.7 0.3 0.00 0.2-1.00 0.00 0.7 0.00 0.2-1.2-1.08-0.Material being turned Aluminium Brass (alpha)-ductile Brass (free cutting) Bronze (phosphor) Cast iron (grey) Copper Steel (mild) Steel (medium carbon) Steel (alloy-high tensile) Thermosetting plastics Feed mm/rev 0.00 0.15-0.2-1.2-1.5 0.2-1.2-1. 70/100 50-80 70-100 35-70 25-40 35-70 35-50 30-35 5-10 35-50 .00 Cutting speed m/min.

The cutting fluid should be directed on the work just above the point where it make contact with the wheel ie. .CUTTTING FLUIDS • Application of the cutting fluid is very important in a grinding operation. The cutting fluid should be applied in adequate quantity and at very low zone.

• It improves the surface finish of the workpiece. • It removes burn marks on the ground surface. .ADVANTAGE OF CUTTING FLUIDS • It removes the heat general. • It maintains the hardness of the heat-treated works. • It keeps the grinding wheel face clean.

• Always mix water to the oil in correct proportion and not oil to the water. • Do not allow soluble oil to mix with other oils.IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE NOTED WHILE USING CUTTING FLUIDS • Always add pure water to soluble oils. . • It should be kept cool under normal temperature.

INTRODUCTION TO GRINDING PROCESS • It is the only economical method of cutting hard material like hardened steel. It is suitable for light work. • It produces very smooth surface up to N4. suitable for bearing surface. . • Surface pressure is minimum in grinding.which will spring away from the cutting tool in the other machining processes.

GENERAL SAFETY • Keep the floor and gangways clean and clear. • Ensure adequate light in the workshop. • Wipe out split oil immediately. • Don’t touch or handle any equipment/machine unless authorized to do so. • Don’t walk under suspended . • Use the correct tools for the job. . • Keep the tools at their proper palace.

grade. .the features such as abrasive. • A grinding wheel consists of an abrasive that does the cutting. grain size. structure and bonding materials can be varied. and a bond that holds the abrasive particles together.CONSTRUCTION OF A GRINDING WHEEL • In order make the grinding wheel suitable for different work situations.

• Natural abrasives • Artificial abrasives .ABRASIVES • There are two types of abrasives.

The larger the grit size number . .GRAIN SIZE • The number indicating the size of the grit represents the number of openings in the sieve used to size the grain. the finer the grit.

• Grade indicates the strength of the bond and, therefore, the `hardness` of the wheel. In a hard wheel the bond is strong and it securely anchor the grit in place, and therefore, reduces the rate of wear. In a soft wheel, the bond is weak and the grit is easily detached resulting in a high rate of wear.

• This indicates the amount of bond present between the individual abrasive grains, and the closeness of the individual grain to each other. An open structured wheel will cut more freely. That is, it will remove more metal. In a given time and produce less heat.

• • • • • Vitrified bond (V) Silicate bond (S) Shellac bond (E) Rubber bond (R) Resinoid bond (B)

STANDARD SHAPES OF GRINDING WHEELS • • • • • • • • • • Straight wheel Cylinder Tapered Recessed one side Straight cup Recessed both sides Flaring cup Dish Saucer Mounted wheels .

SPECIFICATION OF GRINDING WHEELS • • • • • Standard wheel markings Diameter of the wheel Bore diameter of the wheel Thickness of the wheel Type of the wheel .

The selection of a grinding wheel will depend on the following factors. Material to be ground Amount of stock to be removed Finish required Area of contact Wheel speed Work speed Personal factor Method of cooling • • • • • • • • .SELECTION OF GRINDING WHEEL For grinding a job the right grinding wheel is to be selected.

it must be trued before use to remove the run out. Dressing is done on a glazed or loaded wheel to recondition it. • Truing refers to the shaping of the wheel to make it run concentric with the axis. . Dressing exposes the cutting edges which restore the correct cutting action of the wheel. When a new grinding wheel is mounted.GRINDING WHEEL DRESSING &TRUING • Dressing refers to the removing of clogs and blunt abrasive grains from the surface of the grinding wheel.

. This condition is called loading. These are worked down to bond level.GLAZING & LOADING • When the surface of a grinding wheel develops a smooth and shining appearance. etc. are ground the metal particles get clogged between the abrasive particles. it is said to be glazed. This indicate the abrasive particles on the wheel face are not sharp. lead. copper. • When soft materials like aluminium.


TYPE OF GRINDING Rough grinding wheel with vitrified bond Rough grinding wheels with resinoid bond Surface grinding wheels with vitrified bond Internal grinding wheels with vitrified bond Centreless grinding wheels with vitrified bond Cylindrical grinding wheels with vitrified bond Cutting off wheels with resinoid bond Hand grinding of tools Automatic grinding of tools Hand grinding of carbide tools WHEEL SPEED m/sec. 25 45 20-25 20-35 30-80 30-35 45-80 20-25 25-35 18-25 .

20-25 30-40 45-65 50-65 Soft steel Hardened steel Cast iron Aluminium and fine brass . 10-20 25-30 35-55 50-65 FINISH GRIND m/min.WORK SPEED CLASS OF WORK ROUGH GRIND m/min.

DEPTH OF CUT • It is the thickness of the material removed in surface grinding for one cut. • Depth of cut in grinding depend on the: • Cutting load • Power of the machine • Finish required .

SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE • It is precision grinding machine to produce flat surface on a workpiece. It is a more economical and more practical method of accurately finishing flat surface than filling and scraping. .


• The type of drive of the work table:hydraulic/electrical. .SPECIFICATION OF A SURFACE GRINDER • Maximum dia. of the wheel that can be held on the spindle. • Maximum size of the job that can be ground.(length*width*height)(150*150*400).

TYPES OF SURFACE GRINDERS • • • • Horizonal spindle reciprocating table Horizontal spindle rotary table Vertical spindle reciprocating table Vertical spindle rotary table .

HORIZONTAL TYPE GRINDER • • • • Base Saddle Table Wheel head .

WORK HOLDING DEVICES • • • • • The work holding devices used in grinding are: Magnetic chuck Vice Angle plates `V`blocks clamps .

MAGNETIC CHUCK Magnetic chucks are of two types • Electromagnetic chuck • Permanent magnetic chuck The magnetic power of the electro magnetic chuck can be varied according to the size of the work. But not so in the case of a permanent magnetic chuck. .

. If required the tilting base can be removed and it can be mounted on the magnetic chuck as a plain vice.TILTING TYPE VICE • A tilting vice is used to hold the workpiece while grinding angular surfaces.

SURFACE GRINDING OPERATIONS • • • • • • Grinding flat surface Grinding vertical surface Grinding slot Grinding angular surface Grinding a radius Cutting off .

and a high quality surface finish can be obtained (up to N4). .CYLINDRICAL GRINDERS • Cylindrical grinders are used to grind the external of internal surface of a cylindrical workpiece.0025 mm). By cylindrical grinding the diameter of a workpiece can be maintained to a close tolerance (up to 0.

TYPES OF CYLINDRICAL GRINDERS • • • • External cylindrical grinders Internal cylindrical grinders Universal cylindrical grinders Centreless grinders .

shaping machines. in such a way that their final dimension have some stock left. etc. . The amount of this stock left is called the `grinding` allowance.GRINDING ALLOWANCE • Machine parts are processed in different machine such as lathes. which is finished during the grinding operation.

IMPORTANT FACTORE OF GRINDING ALLOWANCE • • • • • Harness of material to be ground Whether the part has to be heat – treated Case depth of case hardened workpiece Grint and grade of grinding wheel Whether grinding is done wet or dry grinding .

HEAT TREATMENT PURPOSE • The properties of steel depend upon its composition and its structure. by changing either its composition or its structure. and then. These properties can be changed to a considerable extent. . The structure of steel can be changed by heating it to a particular temperature. is called `heat treatment of steel`. by heating and cooling. allowing it to cool at a definite rate. The process of changing the structure and thus changing the properties of steel.

TYPES OF STRUCTURE OF STEEL • The structure of steel become visible when a piece of the metals broken. Steel is classified according to its structure. The exact grain size and structure can be seen through a microscope. .

• Annealing :.7%. But the carbon content in steel does not exceed 1.HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS & PURPOSE • Hardening :.To add cutting ability • Tempering :.To refine the grain structure of the steel.To induce toughness and shock resistance. • Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.To relive toughness and stress. . • Normalizing:.

. Then the steel is rapidly cooled through a cooling medium. Soaking time is allowed to enable the steel to obtain a uniform temperature throughout its cross section.C above the critical range.HARDENING • Hardening is a heat treatment process in which steel is heated to 30-50.

C.TEMPERING • Tempering is a heat-treatment process consisting of reheating the hardened steel to a temperature below 400. followed by cooling. .

. 3. • Purpose of tempering the steel:To relieve the internal stresses To regulate the hardness and toughness To restore some ductility Process of tempering the steel:The tempering process consists of heating the hardened steel to the appropriate tempering temperature and soaking at this tempering. for a definite period. 2.• 1.

and cooling at a predetermined rate.ANNELING • Definition:. usually very slowly witching the farness. soaking it for sufficient time to allow the necessary changes to occur.The annealing process is carried out by heating the steel above the critical range. .

To increase the ductility. 4. . • Process:Annealing consists of heating of hypo eutectoid steels to 30t50’c above the upper critical temperature and 50’c above the lover critical temperature for hypereutectoid steels. To relieve the internal stresses. Ti improve the machinebility.• 1. 3. 2. Purpose :To soften the steel.

• To prevent warping. Purpose:• To produce fine grain size in the metal. .NORMALISING Definition:-The process of removing the internal defecate or to refine the structure of steel components is cold normalizing. • To reduce ductility.

SURFACE HARDENING OF STEEL • Most of the components must have a hard. wear resisting surface supported by a tough. shock resisting core for better service condition and longer life. . This combination of different properties can be obtained in a single piece of steel by surface hardening.

TYPES OF SURFACE HARDENING • • • • Case hardening Nitriding Flame hardening Induction hardening .

• The steel is subjected to treatment in which the carbon contact of the surface layer is increased to about o.9%.CASE HARDENING • Parts to be hardened by this process are made from a steel with a carbon contact of 0.15% so that they will not respond to direct hardening. .

. liquid or gas. and kept at that temperature untill the carbon has penetrated to the depth required.CARBURISING • In this operation the steel is heated to a suitable temperature in a carbonaceous atmosphere. • The carbon can be supplied as a solid.

NITRIDING • • • • Gas nitriding Nitriding in salt bath Process Advantages .

the heat is applied to the surface of the work piece by specially constructed burner.the heat is applied to the surface very rapidly and the work is quenched immediately by spraying it with water. .FLAME HARDENING • In This type of hardening.

• Great depth of hardening.ADVENTAGE OF FLAM HARDNING • The hardening devices are brought to the work piece. • Short hardening time. . • Small Distortion. • Easily controlled. • Low fuel consumption.

the depth of hardening for medium frequency current is 1.INTRODUCTION HARDNING • This a production method of surface – hardening in which the part to be surface – hardened is pleased within an inductor coil through which a high frequency current is passed.75% are used.0mm.7 to 1.0mm.5to2. The depth of hardening for high frequency current o.35t00. Special steel and unalloyed steels with a carbon content of 0. .

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