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A series of collective interventions that contribute to the general welfare by assigning claims from one set of people who

are said to produce or earn the national income to another set of people who may merit compassion and charity.
English social scientist Richard Titmuss

Social action sanctioned by sanctioned by society William Epstein Formal and consistent ordering of human affairs.

Is a subset of social policy and regulates the provision of benefits to people to meet basic life needs, such as employment, income, food, housing, healthcare, and relationships.

Social welfare policy concerns those interrelated but not necessarily consistent, principles, guidelines, and procedures designed to deal with the problems of dependency in our society. Policies may be laws, public or private regulations, formal procedures, or simply normatively sanctioned patterns of behavior. Social welfare policy is a sub-set of social policy.
Popple & Leighninger

Government Social Welfare Policy

Voluntary Social Welfare Policy

Corporate Social Welfare Policy

Figure 1. Public Administration and the Three Sectors

(Bold State Vision) Policy Management Regulation Enforcement of equity prevention of discrimination Prevention of exploitation Promotion of social cohesion



(Pre-State Vision

(Negative State Vision) Economic tasks Investment tasks Profit generation Promotion of Self-sufficiency

Social Tasks Tasks requiring volunteer labor Tasks generating little profit Promotion of Independent responsibility Promotion of community Promotion of commitment to welfare of others.

Social work practice is driven by social policies. HOW? What are some examples?

Choices in social welfare policy are heavily influenced by the dominant beliefs, values, ideologies, customs, and traditions of the cultural and political elites recruited mainly from among the more powerful and privileged strata. According to David Gil It can be argued that major social policies are based on values, not on the careful consideration of alternative policies. What do you think?

Ideology is the framework of commonly held beliefs through which we view the world. It is the set of assumptions about how the world works::
What What What What has value? is worth living and dying for? is good and true? is right?

Demand or consumer-side economics Stabilization by government is necessary to keep economy healthy Rejected laissez-faire ideas Government can stabilize economy and avoid recession and inflation trend by increasing or decreasing government spending and Increasing or decreasing taxes Social welfare expenditures are investments in human capital and increase wealth for all

Using fiscal and monetary policy is harmful to the economy Role of government should be to keep the money supply growing slowly and steadily Government should be relatively inactive in economic affairs Welfare spending should exist only for altruistic rather than economic reasons Supply sides argue that large tax cut increase economic activity and tax revenues rise

In this view a person will make a decision that is in their own economic best interest or to use the term of economics, they will maximize their utility. The foundational work for public choice theory was Buchanan and Tullocks Calculus of Consent, (1962). The basis premise, based on classic economic theory, was simple: 1.individuals will act in their own economic selfinterest 2. Group decisions are only aggregates of individual decisions.

Democratic Socialism Based on the belief that radical economic change can occur within a democratic context Socialist argue capitalism can only lead to greater inequality in society

Conservatives prefer private sector approaches over governmental welfare and advocate for smaller government social welfare programs
Liberals view government as the only institution capable of bringing about a measure of social justice to Americans who cannot fully participate in the US mainstream because of racism, poverty, sexism etc.

By the 1970s, liberals became more cautious of government, less antagonistic toward big business and more skeptical about the value of universal entitlements.
Neoliberals formed the Democratic Leadership Council to shift toward a middle ground combining corporatist economic analysis with Democratic compassion Bill Clinton & Al Gore were founders and chairs of the DLC

Human Capital Positive Welfare Social investment state (see page 13 text)

Most conservatives agree on important values related to social policy. The are:
Anti-union Oppose aggressive governmental regulation Demand lower taxes and less governmental spending Want local control of public education Oppose extending civil right legislation Support states rights

Neoconservatism emerged as a movement seeking to arrest the growth in governmental welfare and transferring as much welfare responsibility as possible from government to the private sector. Social issue such as abortion, school prayer etc were not major issue early on Cultural conservatives began to take power In reality neoconservatism is at odds with the culturally conservative social agenda.

Oppose government intrusions in to the marketplace Anti welfare, Promote sexual abstinence, Promote prayer in schools Anti abortion Anti gay rights