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Incident Interview

Cpl D. Gurzynski

Baton Rogue Police Dept.

Define Interview
• Dictionary
– A conversation in which facts or statements are elicited from another.

Purpose of an Interview
• To gather and test the validity of information in order to determine the particulars of the event under investigation. • To identify other witnesses, suspects and victims.

Subjects of an Interview
• Victims • Witnesses
– Complainant: person that contacts officials. – Eyewitnesses: people who saw what happened. – No direct knowledge of crime
• Firearms dealer that sells gun to murderer.

– Expert Witnesses
• Psychologist, fingerprint technician, CSI

• Suspects (??) • And………

Interviewer (You)
• Characteristics of a good Interviewer
– Listen and concentrate on what is being said – Polite – Good physical appearance – Controls emotions (don’t get angry) – Flexible and persistent – Sympathetic to suspect situation
• Verbal and non verbal

court testimony. . Interview (Investigative Interview) • ―INTERROGATION‖ – Public perception – Media driven – Abu Ghurayb Prison – Television – ―Interview‖ or ―Investigative Interview‖ • For reports. media releases.Interrogaton vs.

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.Open Ended Questions • Questions designed to prompt the suspect or witness to give a narrative response rather than just a “yes” or “no” answer.

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– identification questions • What color was his hat? Shirt? • How fast were you driving? • What kind of car was she driving? . usually to clarify information provided during narrative responses to open ended questions.Close Ended Questions • Used to get specific responses.

– Multiple choice questions • Was the car a four door or two door? • Was the suspect running or walking when he left the house? – Yes-No Questions • Were you in the house when this occurred? • Do you own a gun? • Did you point the gun at him? • Don’t Forget – “Did you do it?” » “hurt you wife?” » “force her to have sex?” » “take the money?” .

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they become tense.Deception Indicators • Non-Verbal (Body Language) – When a person experiences conflict. they have to expend the energy. – Movement is the best way to expend energy in order to reduce tension. – Increase in tension makes them become unstable. – To reduce tension. .

. rubbing. etc. swallowing Crossed arms Covers mouth Feet tucked under chair Yawns. twisting hair.Non-Verbal Indicators • Truthful person – – – – – Appears at ease Good eye contact Sincere expressions Sits upright/leans forward Sits still or changes position smoothly – Arms opened – Attentive and alert • Deceptive Person – – – – – – – – – – – – – Appears anxious Very rigid Poor eye contact Posture changes Slouches Nervous movements Dry mouth. signs Blinking Scratching.

That’s about it • Basically. probably. I’ve never been In that neighborhood. kinda. about. to the best of my memory • Ex: To the best of my knowledge. WDA – Modifiers • Pretty much.Verbal Indicators • Hedgers – Leaving themselves an out • To the best of my knowledge. maybe – Lack of conviction to their statement . as far as I know • I don’t think so.

Frankly. Truthfully. Really‖ – Lie to follow – General Rule • If the answer to your question is either ―yes‖ or ―no‖ and you get anything else = WDA • Wrong Damn Answer!!! – You should explore why is subject/suspect being deceptive? .• Qualifiers – Emotional enlistments • • • • ―I swear to God‖ ―I swear on my mother’s grave‖ ―To tell you the truth‖ ―Honestly.

but I didn’t inhale.Bill Clinton Interview • Reporter: – Have you ever used drugs? • Clinton: – ―I never violated any law of my country.‖ WDA • 30 days later same reporter: • Reporter: – ―Did you ever violate any laws of any other country?‖ • Clinton: – ―In England I smoked marijuana.‖ .

Timothy McVeigh • Newsweek: ―This is the question that everyone want to know.‖ • Newsweek: ―But you’ve got a chance right now to say.Did you do it?‖ • McVeigh: ―The only way we can really answer that is that we are going to plead not guilty. ―Hell no!‖ • McVeigh: ―We can’t do that.‖ .

―Are you cheating on me?‖ Husband. ―to tell the truth. get on the car?‖ Son. ―Honey. I didn’t even notice it. why would any man do anything to mess that up.‖ – WDA . ―How did that scratch.Emotional Enlistment • • Wife ask. I love you.‖ – WDA • • Father to son.

• Easiest to do. just don’t say it. more readily forgiven – Falsify • Have to construct a lie • Causes more tension • Easiest to detect – Deception Clues: Verbal and Non Verbal – Mistake will reveal the truth .Deception • Two Forms – Concealment • Leave stuff out. hardest to detect • But.

‖ • Jim Lehrer: ―You had no conversations with this young woman. possible testimony. before—in giving a deposition?‖ • Bill Clinton: ―I did not urge anyone to saying anything that was untrue.‖ . about her testimony. Monica Lewinsky.• Jim Lehrer: ―You had no sexual relationship with this young women?‖ • Bill Clinton: ―There is not a sexual relationship.

– Repeats the questions verbatim – Rephrases the question • Did I break in that house? – Responds with another question (Who me?) – Clears his/her throat – Ask for the question to be repeated – Laughs. I. uh.I. stutters..Stalling Method • Used to buy time to decide on whether to tell the truth or lie and what lie.uh. .I...

– You calling me a liar? – She told you that I did this? – Are you accusing me? • Take away his stinger – Should I be? .The Blamer • Uses offensive statements to get you off of him.

• God as my witness • I’ve been here for 18 years and have never been accused of taking anything. I’m a Christian.Honorable Associations • You ask anybody. . • I go to church every Sunday. they will tell you that I don’t steal. • My mom gives me anything I want.

No • No followed by crossing arms or legs • No followed by breaking or making eye contact • No before question is finished • Breathless No • No. . hedger: I don’t think so. No. followed by. No.Ways to Say ―No‖ = ―Yes‖ • 5 second NOoooooo. Why would I? • No. followed by ?.

– Use indicator question: What if I told you I don’t believe you? . they will show you the same stress shifts as a deceptive person.Othello’s Error • If person telling the truth and they perceive that you don’t believe them. – Truthful person will exhibit same signs as a deceptive person.

Interrogation Techniques/Themes • • • • • • • • Direct Accusation Blame Accomplice Emotional Minimizing the Consequences Baiting Bluffing Overwhelming Evidence .

Direct Accusation • Approach with folder or notepad closed. – Truthful: will give a strong denial. our investigations shows that you’re the one that committed this crime. because it’s important to you and how you want to look. there is no why – Deceptive : weak or no denial. – Video tapes (be careful if bluffing) • ―Jim.‖ – Wait a couple of seconds and read his reaction • I know what happened now I have to find out Why. Who me? .

I want you to just listen to me for a minute and let me explain a few things. you don’t have anything to worry about.Theme or Tactic • Persuasion Phase of the Interrogation – Move in close and present theme – Stop denials • Hold on if you didn’t do anything wrong. . you need to decide how you want to look? • Hold on. but if you made a mistake or did something you shouldn’t have. before you say anything.

kids need clothes. daring you – The bills.) you would have never done this. you were just trying to help out your family – If it weren’t for the gambling (drugs. . your not a thief. etc. alcohol.Blame Theme • Puts Blame on someone or something else besides the suspect – Wife always yelling and screaming.

I don’t believe that. • I know Roy is your friend. • To tell on one is to confess. .Accomplice • Multiple suspects – Divide them and conquer • You couldn’t of done this by yourself. but right now your in the hot seat and you got to think about yourself and how this is gonna effect you. but I got to hear that from you. Roy is telling us that this was your idea.

– How is this going to effect your poor mama? – Your little baby girl (her name if you know it). needs her mama at home? .Emotional • How is this going to effect your family? – Think about your son and when he does something wrong. – The truth is the quickest way to get back to your family.

• Or the person who just made a mistake and wants to do the right thing . career criminal. – Looks like a thief.Minimizing the Consequences • You be the judge – If you had to decide on what to do with the person that did this. which person would you be more likely to give a break to • The liar who despite all the evidence hasn’t come to terms with what he has done. etc.

footprints – Video cameras – DNA • CSI .Baiting • Question asked that implies the possible existence of incriminating evidence for the purpose of enticing the suspect to consider changing his denials – Finger prints. eyewitnesses.

Cupp – US Supreme Court approved the use of trickery and deceit. • You could loose your credibility • Frazier vs. – Suspect was wearing gloves or didn’t go where you say you have prints.Bluffing • Indicating you have evidence that you don’t. Very risky • We have your fingerprints all over. – You can lie as long at it does not shock the conscience of the court or community .

– Criticize his sloppy work • You left so much evidence . – Count it out on your fingers – This looks really bad for you – Show him picture of himself and ask him who it is.Overwhelming Evidence • Bombard the suspect with confirmed solid evidence that you have.

let it flow) – Move in close • Give him alternative between acceptable and unacceptable reason for committing the crime – Ask for Confession • Just tell me what happened .Alternatives • When signs of surrender begin to appear – Feeling Channel • Decision to tell the truth or not • Where you want them – Suspect lowers his eyes and head » He may have accepted his guilt and is thinking about admitting to what he has done. » Possible tears (no tissues.

Corroborate Confession • Once you have your initial admission – Encourage suspect to talk about the aspects of the crime. – Admission should include elements that they would know if they committed the crime. . • Evidence that you did not reveal – Note in your report – Voluntary statement or recorded.

.• Stay away from legal terms – Murder caused death – Rape forced to have sex – Steal take – Confess tell the truth – Killed hurt – The best catch all is: ―Made a Mistake‖ • Until confession then specific.