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# ASD v/s LRFD

Know

the difference Whats the underlying philosophy? Where is it applied? How to apply it?

PIPELINES GROUP

ASD

## Allowable Stress Design

Used to be called Working Stress Design The principle of ASD design format is to ensure that the equivalent stress induced due to combination of all contributing loads does not exceed the allowable stress for the material .

LRFD
Load Resistance Factor Design
Used to be called Limit States Design The principle of the LRFD design format is to ensure that the level of structural safety is such that the design load on the pipeline does not exceed the design resistance of the pipeline except for a stated level of failure probability.

## ASD v/s LRFD

ASD

Major difference
LRFD

Uses service load stresses against an Allowable Stress Provides a constant factor of safety for all designs regardless of load types Uses single safety factor independent of how and which load affects the failure the most Static analysis is acceptable for ASD

Uses factored load forces against a maximum Strength Provides a higher factor of safety on the loads that are less well defined Allows proper, balanced statistical probabilities of failure

## Non-linear geometric analysis is required for LRFD

ASD
Example to understand the design methodology
Lets take the classic example of bar under tension in a universal testing machine (UTM) Bar dimensions: Circular bar of 10mm C/s area, A=2/4=78.54mm2 Material of bar: Steel X60 grade: SMYS=414 N/mm2 Load: Tension applied, F=2 Tons F=2*9.81=19.62 kN Stress induced, =F/A=249 N/mm2 Allowable Stress, all=(safety factor)*SMYS all=0.72*414=298.08 N/mm2

## Since <all the bar is safe

LRFD
Example to understand the design methodology
Consider the same example of bar under tension in a universal testing machine (UTM) under same loading conditions We know that SMYS of 414 N/mm2 may vary slightly with different bars (due to slight variations in metallurgy or imperfections), hence we apply a resistance factor of 0.9 just to be safe (this factor is also called capacity reduction factor) Hence, Allowable resistance=0.9*414 = 372.6 N/mm2 Also a load factor is used to account for the uncertainty of exact load applied. For instance, lets apply a load factor of 1.2 Hence, Load applied, F=1.2*2 Tons = 2.4 Tons Limiting load is implied by introducing both resistance factor and load factor into design

LRFD (contd)
Example to understand the design methodology
Limiting load is implied by introducing both resistance factor and load factor into design Hence the bar is safe if: 1.2*F < (0.9*SMYS)*Area 1.2*F < 0.9*414*78.54 1.2*F < 29.26 kN or 1.2*F < 2.98 Tons Since, 1.2*F=2.4 Tons < 2.98 Tons i.e., Applied load < Limiting load, the bar is safe

## More insight to ASD v/s LRFD

Salient inclusions in LRFD

At a LL/DL ratio < 3, ASD is more conservative, At a LL/DL ration = 3, it is a wash, And at a LL/DL ratio > 3 LRFD is more conservative You cannot switch between the two philosophies in a given project!

## More insight to ASD v/s LRFD (contd)

Salient inclusions in LRFD