You are on page 1of 141

What action is required when seeing an emergency vehicle stopped on the shoulder of the interstate?

a. b. c. d. stop and provide assistance no action is required move over one lane move over two lanes

5|1

Chapter 5 (continued) Covalent Compounds

The shuttle is fueled by covalently bonded molecules ( i.e., NH2NH2, hydrazine and H2 and O2 .)

5|3

Covalent Bonds 5|4 .

5|5 . A single covalent bond has two electrons shared by two atoms.What is a covalent bond? A bond between two nonmetallic atoms.

5|6 .

5|7 .Shared electrons are also known as bonding electrons.

Lewis Structures (Electron Dot Formulas) 5|8 .

A Lewis structure is a formula where all atoms and all valence e. This formula is useful in determining the shape and polarity of a substance. 5|9 .are shown.

5 | 10 .

5 | 11 .

5 | 12 .

5 | 13 .

pairs between atoms.Covalent bonds are also classified by the number of e. Number of Shared Bonding Pairs One Two Three Name of Bond Single Bond (C-C) Double Bond (C=C) Triple Bond (C≡C) 5 | 14 .

.The number of unpaired electrons determine the number of bonds.

You need to know these common bonding patterns for C. All rights reserved. and O Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 16 . N.

The bonding pattern for the halogens (X = F. and I ) is shown here. For hydrogen it is —H Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 17 . Cl. Br. All rights reserved.

5 | 18 . All rights reserved. H is single. CH3F C is 4 single bonds.Practice Exercise Predict the bonding pattern (number and type) for each atom in these molecules. F is single NCl3 CO2 H2 O 2 SBr2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Drawing Lewis Structures Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 19 . All rights reserved.

5 | 20 .Be sure you know the three simple rules about the hydrogen atom when drawing Lewis structures Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Hydrogen…… (a) is always an exterior atom. (b) always has one bond. All rights reserved. (c) never has lone pairs Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 21 .

All rights reserved.three major steps…) 1. Determine the number of bonds and… ….How to Draw Lewis Structure How to Draw a aLewis Structure (…. then connect the central atom to the exterior atoms Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 22 .

5 | 23 . the # of Bonds How to Draw a Lewis Structure Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.How to Detm.

5 | 24 . All rights reserved.Example Draw the Lewis structure for CO2 The first step is to determine how many bonds are present Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

All rights reserved. 5 | 25 .Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

5 | 26 . All rights reserved.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Add lone pairs so each atom has an octet or duet for hydrogen Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.How to Draw Lewis Structure How to Draw a aLewis Structure 2. All rights reserved. 5 | 27 .

. Verify the octet rule and the valence e. All rights reserved.How to Draw a Lewis Structure 3. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 28 .

Practice Exercise Draw Lewis structures for these molecules and ions. CH3F NCl3 CO2 H 2O 2 SBr2 HCN NO3 HCO3 SO42Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 29

Why draw Lewis structures?

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 30

The VSEPR Model (Valence-Shell Electron Repulsion)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 31

There are three basic ―VSEPR shapes‖ based on the electron groups around a central atom and six molecular shapes based on the number of bonded atoms (bonding pairs) and lone pairs. All rights reserved. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 32 .What is VSEPR? VSEPR is a set of rules used to predict the shape (geometry) of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

What is an electron group? An electron group is a region of electron pairs around a central atom. 5 | 33 . single bond. All rights reserved. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. double bond or triple bond. An electron group can be a lone pair.

5 | 34 .Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 35 . All rights reserved.Electron Groups Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Electron Groups Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 36 .

5 | 37 . All rights reserved.Recognizing Electron Groups: Exercise Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Practice Exercise Give the number of bonding and nonbonding electron groups at the central atom in each substance Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 38 .

The Basic Shapes Predicted by VSEPR Theory 5 | 39 .

Low Energy Arrangement for Two Balloons Tied Together 5 | 40 .

What is the name of the basic shape for three balloons? 5 | 41 .

What is the name of the basic shape for four balloons? 5 | 42 .

Three Basic Shapes Predicted by VSEPR Electron Name of Shape Groups 4 3 2 Tetrahedral Trigonal Planar Linear 5 | 43 .

Chemical Bonding: The Covalent Four e.groups Two e.groups Bond Model cont’d Three e.groups 5 | 44 .

Now let’s take look at the molecular shapes 5 | 45 .

2 3. 1 2. 1 2. 0 tetrahedral pyramid bent trigonal planar bent linear 5 | 46 . Groups #Nonbonding Name of Shape 4 4 4 3 3 2 4. 0 2.Molecular Shapes Predicted by VSEPR Electron #Bonding. 0 3.

Molecular shapes derived from the tetrahedral basic shape. 0 = tetrahedral 3. 2 = bent 5 | 47 . 1 = pyramidal 2. 4.

Molecular shapes derived from the trigonal planar basic shape. 1 = bent 5 | 48 . 3.0 = trigonal planar 2.

0 = linear 5 | 49 .Only one molecular shape is possible for the linear electronic geometry. 2.

Table 5.16 .

Space-Filling Model of HCN VSEPR Exercises 5 | 51 .

How many bonds are in each molecule? What shape is this? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 52 .

What shape is this?

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 53

What shape are in How many bonds is this? each molecule?

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 54

What shape is this?

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 55

All rights reserved.What shape is this? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 56 .

What shape is this? 5 | 57 .

What shape is this? 5 | 58 .

What shape is this? 5 | 59 .

Drawing 3D Structures on a 2D Surface 5 | 60 .

Why do we need to determine the shape? 5 | 61 .

Introduction to Polarity 5 | 62 .

All rights reserved.Is the molecule polar …… (..is there a balance of electrical charge)? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. (.is there an imbalance of electrical charge) or is it nonpolar……. 5 | 63 .

5 | 64 .Is F2 polar or nonpolar? F2 is nonpolar. All rights reserved. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

All rights reserved.Is HF polar or nonpolar? HF is polar. 5 | 65 . Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

All rights reserved. Compare F2 and HF Balanced Not Balanced 5 | 66 .Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Nonpolar Polar Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 67 .

5 | 68 .

Determine the molecular shape ( apply the vsepr rules) 5 | 69 . Draw the Lewis Structure 2.To determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar is a four-step process: 1.

All rights reserved. Determine the bond polarities ( apply the electronegativity values) 4.3. 5 | 70 . Determine the polarity of the molecule (apply the symmetry rules) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Polarity 5 | 71 .

Polarity is an imbalance of electron density in a bond or in a molecule. 5 | 72 .

5 | 73 .

5 | 74 .

5 | 75 .

5 | 76 .

5 | 77 .

5 | 78 .

5 | 79 .

5 | 80 .from the process used to evaluate molecular polarity. is different …… …. is different. is different.The process used to evaluate bond polarity is different.

Electronegativity and Bond Polarity How do we evaluate the polarity of a bond ? We use electronegativity values from a table and a polarity scale. 5 | 81 .

What is electronegativity? Electronegativity is a value assigned to the electron-attracting power of an atom connected to a bond.attracting power = a higher number 5 | 82 . Greater e.

JPG Table of Electronegativity Values .05_05.

5 = 1. All rights reserved.0 – 2. Example : FC = 4.5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 5 | 84 .How do you use electronegativity to evaluate bond polarity ? Subtract the two values and compare the result with the bond polarity scale.

5 | 85 .The Bond Polarity Scale You must know the bond polarity scale given in the next slide.

5-1.The Bond Polarity Scale Difference in EN Values 0.4 Nonpolar Type of Bond 0.8 or higher Ionic 5 | 86 .0 – 0.7 Polar 1.

Is a FC bond polar or nonpolar ? = 4.5-1.8 or higher Ionic 5 | 87 .7 Polar 1.5 Type of Bond Difference in EN Values 0.0 – 2.5 = 1.0 – 0.4 Nonpolar 0.

.

Practice Exercise Determine the bond polarity of each bond by stating if the bond is polar or nonpolar.4 Nonpolar 0.7 Polar Type of Bond S-H____________ C-H____________ 1.5-1.0 – 0.8 or higher Ionic 5 | 89 . C-Cl___________ C-N____________ H-I_____________ Difference in EN Values 0.

Determining Molecular Polarity Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 90 .

All rights reserved. 5 | 91 .Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

5 | 92 .How do you determine the polarity of a molecule? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Symmetrical bond polarities= Nonpolar molecule Asymmetrical = Polar molecule Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 93 .Determine if the bond polarities are symmetrical or asymmetrical.

Let’s look at carbon tetrachloride 05_06-29UN.JPG .

Carbon tetrachloride has four polar bonds 05_06-30UN.JPG .

.JPG the water molecule.Let’s look05_06-26UN.

Let’s05_06-27UN.JPG look at ammonia .

05_06-28UN.JPG .

5 | 99 .Molecules with all nonpolar bonds must be nonpolar Molecules with a lone pair on the central atom have a tendency to be polar….but go through the steps ..

Practice Exercise Determine if the molecule is polar or nonpolar. NF3 __________________ CHCl3__________ CS2____________ SCl2____________ H2S_____________ O3 ______________ BF3_______________ 5 | 100 .

5 | 101 .Naming Binary Covalent Compounds Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 | 102 .Chemical Bonding: Naming Binary Covalent Compounds The Covalent Bond Model cont’d 1. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. Name the second nonmetal with prefix and the suffix -ide.Name the first nonmetal with prefix (omit mono) 2. All rights reserved.

Prefixes you will need to know 05_T12.JPG .

Practice Exercise Name these compounds. 5 | 104 . All rights reserved. SO2 SO3 NF3 N 2H 4 CS2 SCl2 H 2S BF3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Pre-Lecture Review Questions 5 | 105 .

FeH d.The chemical formula of iron (III) hydroxide is…… a. Fe(OH)2 c. 5 | 106 . All rights reserved. Fe(OH)3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. FeOH b.

The chemical formula of silver nitride is…… a. Ag(NO3)3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. AgN3 b. All rights reserved. AgNO3 c. 5 | 107 . Ag3N d.

Fe(OH)3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 108 . FeH d. FeOH b.The chemical formula of iron (III) hydroxide is…… a. Fe(OH)2 c.

Chemical Bonding: Compounds Common Names of Selected Binary The Covalent Bond Modet’d 5 | 109 .

All rights reserved.some more practice naming compounds and writing formulas Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.The Octet Rule: Formation of Na+ . 5 | 110 ..

5 | 111 . All rights reserved.Practice Exercise Write the chemical formuls of these compounds Cupric sulfide_______________ Zinc iodide________________ Ammonium hydroxide___________ Silver nitrate______________ Iron(II) hydrogen carbonate_____________ Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

5 | 112 .Practice Exercise Write the recognition cue needed to name these compounds and then write the names of these compounds. SO2 SO3 NH4HCO3 Fe3N2 Cu(CN)2 K2HPO4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

. 5 | 113 .The Octet Rule: Formation of Na+ .an alternative method for drawing a Lewis structure. All rights reserved. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 | 114 .

what is the difference between water and steam? .Intermolecular Forces In chemical terms.

A special type of intermolecular force that is present in water is no longer present in steam. Notice the presence of the H bonds. .

Molecular Scale Representation of Steam The H bonds are no longer present .

Example: Boiling of water to steam is a physical change (hydrogen bonds broken) . .What is an intermolecular force? An intermolecular force is any attractive force between particles that can be easily broken during a physical change of a substance .

Dipole ( force between + and of two molecules) (3) Hydrogen bond (H bond) .Types of Intermolecular Forces (1) Dispersion forces ( very weak forces) (2) Dipole.

O. or F atom to have hydrogen bonds .05_06-24UN.JPG A molecule must have a H atom bonded to a N.

JPG .05_06-24UN.

05_06-34UN.JPG Dipole-Dipole Forces

Hydrogen Bond
A hydrogen bond is a weak attractive force between two molecules represented by a dotted or dashed line.

.

Hydrogen Bond .

Hydrogen Bond .

05_06-35UN.JPG .

Hydrogen Bond Workshop .

CH3CHO .CH3CH2CH2OH d. CH3CH3 f. HI e. a. H2NNH2 h.Place a check beside each cmpd that has hydrogen bonding in a pure liquid sample of the cmpd. NH2Cl g.CH3NH2 c.(CH3)2O b.

Determine if hydrogen bonding can exist in a pure sample of each molecule. NCl3 CH4 CH3OCH3 .

would hydrogen bonding exist between molecules Of H2 and H2O In a mixture of H2 gas and H2O . H2 gas and H2O.In a mixture ctg.

.Evaluate the two molecules below and determine if a hydrogen bond is possible. then draw the hydrogen bond. If it is possible.

one b. a.Inspect the water molecule and determine the number of hydrogen bonds it can form with other molecules.three d.two c.four .

You must also be able to answer these type of questions H2O …polar or nonpolar? CH4.polar or nonpolar? CO2 … polar or nonpolar? NH3 … polar or nonpolar? 5 | 135 ..Here are some polarity questions that chemists must answer while doing lab work .

Dipole-dipole c. London b.Which intermolecular force is responsible for the formation of icebergs? a. Hydrogen bonding .

Titanic Disaster of 1912 .

Photo of Titanic Iceberg .

Iceberg View below the water .

Which intermolecular force is responsible for the double helix in DNA? a. Dispersion (London forces) b. Dipole-dipole c. Hydrogen bonding .

How many H-bonds do you see in this diagram? .