This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
History and Evolution Of Management Thought
Objectives of The Chapter
To Understand Early Approaches to management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Modern Approaches to management Emerging approaches in management thought.
Both theory and history are indispensable tools for managing contemporary organizations. A theory is a conceptual framework for organizing knowledge that provides a blueprint for various courses of action.
Early Approaches to Management Name Robert Owen Charles Babbage Andrew Ure Charles Dupin Period 1771-1858 1792-1871 1778-1857 1784-1873 Emphasized the need to consider management as separated field of study and the importance of business skills for running a business.Towne 1844-1924 . Contribution Proposed legislative reforms to improve working conditions of labor Advocated the concept or ‘division of labor’ Advocated the study of management Henry R.
MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT APPROACHES CLASSICAL APPROACH BEHAVIORAL APPROACH SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT HAWTHORNE STUDIES BUREAUCRATIC ADMINISTRATIV MANAGEMENT E MANAGEMENT MASLOW’S NEED THEORY X AND HIERARCHY THEORY Y OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT CONTINGENCY THEORY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM EMERGING APPROACHES QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT APPROACH SCIENCE MODERN APPROACH THE SYSTEMS THEORY .
Classical Approach Forms the foundation for the field of management The schools for management thoughts are: Scientific Management Administrative Theory Bureaucratic Management .
W. • • • 2. • • • • • • SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT-F.CLASSICAL APPROACH 1.HENRY FAYOL Technical Commercial Financial Security Accounting managerial . TAYLOR Piece rate incentive system Time and motion study Gantt scheduling chart-Henry Laurence Gantt ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY.
CLASSICAL APPROACH 3.MAX WEBER • Work specialization and division of labor • Abstract rules and regulations • Impersonality of managers • Hierarchy of organization structure . BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT.
or reasoning.” Major contributors: Frederick Winslow Taylor Frank and Lillian Gillbreth Henry L.Scientific Management Early 1900s It is defined as “that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established.Gantt . experiment. by facts or truths gained through systematic observation.
Frederick Winslow Taylor “Father of scientific management”(1878) Two major managerial practices: Piece-rate incentive system Time-and-motion study .
. Explore new ways for eliminating unnecessary motions and reducing work fatigue.Frank and Lillian Gillbreth 1868-1924 Motion study involves finding out the best sequence and minimum number of motions needed to complete a task.
e.bonus system -The Gantt chart If the worker completed the work fast. in less than the standard time. he received a bonus. It is a Simple chart that compares actual and planned performances..HENRY L. .GANTT(1861-1919) Well known for Task – and . i.
It also ignored the human desire for job satisfaction. people were “rational” and were motivated primarily by the desire for material gain. .Limitations of Scientific Management Do not focus on the management of an organization from a manager’s point of view.
Henri Fayol (1841-1925) .Administrative Theory: It focused on principles that could be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations.
Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Fourteen principles: Division of work Authority and responsibility Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of the individual interest to the general interest Remuneration Centralization: Scalar chain Order Equity Stability Initiative Espirit de corps (team spirit) .
Bureaucratic Management Weber (1864-1920) Characteristics of Weber’s ideal Bureaucracy: Work specification and division of labor Abstract rules and regulations: Impersonality of managers: Hierarchy of organization structure: .
motivation. Classical theorists ignored the problems of leadership. Fayol’s principles like that of specialization were frequently in conflict with the principle of unity of command.Limitations of Bureaucratic Management and Administrative Theory Not universally applicable to today’s complex organizations. Principle characteristic of bureaucracy changes in the global environment. . power or information relations.
Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach to management emphasized individual attitudes and behaviors and group processes. and recognized the significance of behavioral process in the workplace. .
HAWTHORNE STUDIES • Illumination studies • Relay assembly room study • Bank wiring room study .
Contributions of Behavioral Thinkers to Management Thought Name Mary Parker Follet Elton Mayo Abraham Maslow Douglas McGregor Chris Argyris Period Contribution 18681933 18681933 Advocated the concept of ‘power sharing’ and integration foundation for the Human Relations Movement. 1908 – motivated by a hierarchy of needs 1970 19061964 Theory X and Theory Y personalities Classified organizations based on the employees’ set of values .
according to Follet. which involves finding a solution acceptable to all group members . was the ability to influence and bring about a change.Mary Parker Follet (1868-1933) Power. Concept of integration.
importance of the work determining output. .Elton Mayo (1868-1933) Pre-judgment Job performance depends on the individual worker Findings The group is the key factors in job performance Fatigue is the main Perceived meaning and factor affecting output. Management sets Workplace culture sets its production standards own production standards.
. Physiological needs. Safety or security needs Belongingness or social needs.Abraham Maslow His theory rested on these assumptions. Esteem or status needs Self actualization or self-fulfillment needs.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Self actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs .
Douglas Mcgregor Theory X Theory Y Most People dislike work Work is a natural activity like play. . They avoid to organizational objectives responsibility and have if they are rewarded in little ambition. Most people prefer to be People become committed directed. doing so. Most People must be People are capable of self coerced and threatened direction and self control before they work.
Model I organization are manipulative 2. Model I and Model II organization analysis. Model II organization are open to learning . • 1.Chris Argyris Maturity – immaturity theory • People progress from a stage of immaturity and dependence to a state of maturity and independence.
this approach focuses on achieving organizational effectiveness. optimization models.Quantitative Approach It includes the application of statistics. information models and computer simulations. Three main branches: Management Science Operations Management and Management Information Systems. More specifically. .
Another name is the Operations Research. .Management Science It stresses the use of mathematical models and statistical methods for decision-making.
products and .Operations Management It deals with of the the effective production management process and the timely delivery of an organization’s services.
Management Information Systems Management information systems focuses on designing and implementing organizations. computer-based information systems for business .
Modern Approaches to Management Systems Theory Contingency Theory .
Systems Theory Inputs Resources Transformation process Managerial and Technological Abilities Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Technology Outputs Goods Services Profits and losses Employee satisfaction Labor Materials Capital Machinery Information Feedback .
Contingency Theory Systems Viewpoint How the parts fits together •Individual •Group Traditional •Organization viewpoint •environment What managers do Behavioral Viewpoint •Plan How managers influence •Organize others •Lead •Interpersonal Roles • Control •Informational Roles •Decisional Roles Contingency Viewpoint Managers’ use of other view points to solve problems •External environment •Technology •Individuals .
Emerging Approaches In Management Thought William Ouchi. Quality Management is a management approach that directs the efforts of management towards bringing about continuous improvement in product and service quality to achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction and build customer loyalty. outlined new theory called Theory Z. . It is the blend of positive aspects of both American and Japanese management styles.
.Now you are familiar with • Different classification of management approaches • A few theorists and theories • Early Approaches to Management • Classical Approach • Behavioral Approach • Quantitative Approach • Modern Approaches to management • Emerging approaches in management thought.
Thank you!!! .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.