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EXAMPLE OF SINGLE FACTOR EXPERIMENT

Dedy Sugiarto

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Example of single factor experiment with qualitative factor (Popcorn experiment)

For example, we may want to investigate the influence of pop corn brands on the proportion of un-popped kernels (minimize). We use completely randomize design or without blocking of experimental unit for this single factor experiment. There are tree levels for brand (A, B and C) and tree replications for each lavel. We use one hundred kernels for each trial and 3,5 minutes to make pop corn on stove.
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We wish to test hypotheses about the treatment means, and our conclusion will apply only to the factor levels considered in the analysis
Ho : 1 = 2 = . = a H1 : i j for at least one pair (i,j)
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Randomization using Minitab :


Run order Brand C Brand C Brand B Brand A Brand C Brand B Brand A Brand A Brand B
Un-popped kernels proportion

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Picture 1. Three brands of pop corn

Picture 2. Processing of pop corn


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The results of experiment :


Run order
Brand C Brand C Brand B Brand A Brand C Brand B Picture 3. Popped and unpopped kernels from tree brands Brand A Brand A Brand B Un-popped kernels proportion 0,04 0,05 0,11 0,00 0,08 0,13 0,03 0,03 0,08
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Minitab Output :
One-way ANOVA: Pooled StDev = 0,02134 Source DF SS MS F P Brand 2 0,011356 0,005678 12,46 0,007 Error 6 0,002733 0,000456 Total 8 0,014089 S = 0,02134 R-Sq = 80,60% R-Sq(adj) = 74,13%
Level Brand A Brand B Brand C N 3 3 3 Mean 0,02000 0,10667 0,05667 StDev 0,01732 0,02517 0,02082 Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on Pooled StDev ---+---------+---------+---------+-----(-------*-------) (-------*------) (------*-------) ---+---------+---------+---------+-----0,000 0,040 0,080 0,120

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Interpreting the Results :

The small p-values for the brand (p = 0.007) that lower than ( 0.05) suggest there is significant effect of brand on proportion of un-popped kernels. Individual 95% confidence interval for mean of three brand suggest that brand A has significantly difference with brand B.
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Example of single factor experiment with quantitative factor (Cotton experiment)

A product development engineer is interested in investigating the tensile strength of a new synthetic fiber that will be used to make cloth for mens shirts. The engineer knows from previous experience that the strength is affected by the weight percent of cotton used in the blend of materials for the fiber.

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The Example

Furthermore, she suspects that increasing the cotton content will increase the strength, at least initially. She also knows that cotton content should range between about 10 and 40 percent if the final product is to have other quality characteristics that are desired (such as the ability to take a permanent-press finishing treatment).

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The Example

The engineer decides to test specimens at five levels of cotton weight percent: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 percent. She also decides to test five specimens at each level of cotton content. This is a single-factor experiment with a = 5 levels of the factor and n = 5 replicates. The 25 runs should be made in random order.

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The Example
Cotton Weight Percentage
15 20

Observations
1 7 12 2 7 17 3 15 12 4 11 18 5 9 18

25
30 35

14
19 7

18
25 10

18
22 11

19
19 15

19
23 11
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The tensile strength data

The ANOVA

Stat > ANOVA > One-Way (Unstacked)

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The ANOVA

Data Location

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The ANOVA

To examine experimental data graphically.

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The Data Plot

The average value

This plot indicate that the tensile strength increases as cotton content increases, up to about 30 percent cotton.

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The Data Plot

This plot also indicate the same result as the previous plot, that the tensile strength increases as cotton content increases, up to about 30 percent cotton.

Still no strong evidence to suggest that the variability in tensile strength around the average depends on the cotton weight percentage.
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The ANOVA

Is smaller than (=0.05), then the cotton weight percentage in the fiber significantly affects the mean tensile strength.

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Model Adequacy Checking


Independency

Normal

Could be accompanied by several Statistical Test for Equality of Variance.

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The Tukeys Test

Setting the level at 5% (or value = 0.05)

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The Tukeys Test

Ordering the treatment means in non-descending rule.

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The Fishers Test

Setting the level at 5% (or value = 0.05)

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The Fishers Test

Then, we better use the 30% cotton content!


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Regression Plot
tensile stre = -39.9886 + 4.59257 weight % - 0.0885714 weight %**2 S = 3.43859
25

R-Sq = 59.2 %

R-Sq(adj) = 55.4 %

20

tensile stre

15

10

15

25

35
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weight %

Regression Plot
tensile stre = 62.6114 - 9.01143 weight % + 0.481429 weight %**2 - 0.0076 weight %**3 S = 3.04839
25

R-Sq = 69.4 %

R-Sq(adj) = 65.0 %

20

tensile stre

15

10

15

25

35
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weight %