Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering

Lund University, Sweden
Island Operation with Induction Generators

Fault Analysis and Protection

Francesco Sulla
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© Francesco Sulla
Power blackouts happen... (Sweden 2003 and 2005)



Utilities must pay compensation
costs





Island Operation of DG may reduce interruption time

Induction Generators (IG) are common among DG
Background
0 5 10 15
0
12.5
62.5
112.5
162.5
212.5
262.5
300
Interruption time [days]
C
o
m
p
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a
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i
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n

[
%
]
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© Francesco Sulla
Objectives
Study the protection of a distribution network in island
operation with IG

 Analyze the behavior of the IG during earth-fault and short-
circuit conditions through simulations
• Different from the behavior of a synchronous generator?
• How the STATCOM influences this behavior?

Requirements on the protection system:
• Change as little as possible from the actual situation
• Find solutions (least costly as possible) to assure correct
fault clearing and compliance with law requirements
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© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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© Francesco Sulla
Content
Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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© Francesco Sulla
Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
The intersection gives the
operating point at no-load
The IG may self-excite
if C are connected at its
terminals

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© Francesco Sulla
Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
The intersection
is the new stable
operating point
with a load
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Current [A]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
No-load
Operating
point
C
IG With load
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© Francesco Sulla
Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
The procedure can be repeated for different
frequencies….
The intersection
represents all the
possible stable
operating points
IG With load
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© Francesco Sulla
Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
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© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
Actual situation with Petersen coil earthing
The distribution network.....


IG
I
f

I
Cap

CB
I
Petersen

R
N
+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
IG
I
f

I
Cap

CB
In island operation the distribution network may be
unearthed
Unearthed system with an IG in island
R
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+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
IG
I
f

I
Cap

Unearthed system with an IG in island
CB
In island operation the distribution network may be
unearthed
R
N
+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
CB
IG
I
f

I
Petersen
I
Cap

Island operation with Petersen coil earthing
CB
Resonant earthing is also possible in island operation
R
N
+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
At a phase-to-earth fault on an unearthed or
resonant-earthed MV network, the SEIG does not
demagnetize
The IG can be
represented by:

 E’ behind X’





 Z
neg

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© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits

The IG three-phase short-circuit current decays





L’ limits the current magnitude; T
r
determines how
fast the sinusoidal current component decays

A more accurate short-circuit current formula is
derived in the thesis

Two cases considered in the simulations:
400 kVA with T
r
= 16,8 ms
1 MVA with T
r
= 33,5 ms
( )
'
cos( ) cos( )
2 2
s r
t t
T T
a s
s
U
i t t e e
L
t t
e | |
e
÷ ÷
| |
= + + ÷ +
|
\ .
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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
The SEIG demagnetizes at any short-circuit in the
network
 Large IG demagnetize slower than small IG
 Phase-phase short-circuits cause slower demagnetization
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
0
5
10
Three-phase short-circuit
I
A

[
p
u
]
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
0
5
10
I
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
0
5
10
Phase-phase short-circuit
I
A

[
p
u
]
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
0
5
10
I
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
400 kVA
400 kVA
1000 kVA
1000 kVA
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© Francesco Sulla
Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
A STATCOM does not influence much the short-circuit
current of a SEIG
0.96 0.98 1 1.02 1.04 1.06
0
2
4
6
I
a

(
p
.
u
.
)
Three-phase short-circuit


0.96 0.98 1 1.02 1.04 1.06
0
0.5
1
time (s)
S
T
A
T
C
O
M

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

(
p
.
u
.
)


I
STATCOM
I
q
I
d
without STATCOM
with STATCOM
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© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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© Francesco Sulla
Selectivity
Is it possible to achieve selectivity in a bigger island-operated
system with SEIG?

IG
CB
Rela
y
R
N
+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Unselective protection

IG
CB
Rela
y
SEIG is disconnected

Unselective / Selective Protection
R
N
+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Selective protection

IG
CB
Rela
y
Only faulted feeder is disconnected

Unselective / Selective Protection
R
N
+jX
Pet

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© Francesco Sulla
Unselective / Selective Protection
Unselective protection:
Small island systems
No need to change feeder relay settings
Protection relays at SEIG station

Selective protection:
Bigger island systems
Need to change feeder relay settings (before and after)
Ride through capability of the SEIG?

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
a) b)
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
5
10
15
20
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I
f

[
p
u
]
time [s]
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
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© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
M
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© Francesco Sulla
Unselective Earth-fault Protection
High resistive earth-faults up to 5 kΩ must be
disconnected

The zero sequence voltage V
0
must be used for high
resistive earth-fault detection
Unearthed network
Resonant-earthed network


Negative sequence current is too small for high resistive
earth-faults and cannot be used for protection
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
a) b)
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
5
10
15
20
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I
f

[
p
u
]
time [s]
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
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© Francesco Sulla
Unselective Earth-fault Protection
In unearthed networks:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
a) b)
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
5
10
15
20
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I
f

[
p
u
]
time [s]
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
V
0
decreases with C
tot


C
tot
must be limited to
detect high resistive faults

Only limited amount of
cables is allowed

V
0




I
neg
Rf = 5 kΩ
0 2 4 6 8
x 10
-6
0
0.5
V
0

[
p
u
]
0 2 4 6 8
x 10
-6
0
1
2
C
t ot
[F]
I
n

(
%
)
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© Francesco Sulla
Unselective Earth-fault Protection
In resonant earthed networks attention must be given to
the Petersen coil tuning
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
a) b)
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
5
10
15
20
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I
f

[
p
u
]
time [s]
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Calculations
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
V
0

[
p
.
u
.
]
time [s]
Earth-fault with R
f
= 5 kO and 5 km cables
100%
Compensation
50 100 150 200 250
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0.11
Z
e
r
o

s
e
q
u
e
n
c
e

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
p
u
)
Compensation level (%)
Earth-fault with R
f
= 5000 O
5 km cables

10 km cables
Simulations with SEIG
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© Francesco Sulla
Unselective Earth-fault Protection
The zero sequence voltage must be sensed on the D-
side of the step-up transformer
 traditionally, use 3 broken-delta connected VTs
 estimate V
0
by using only 1 VT on the D-side
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
a) b)
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
5
10
15
20
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I
f

[
p
u
]
time [s]
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
 V
0
can be accurately
estimated if all parameters
are known


 The estimation is
cheaper than the
measurement

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© Francesco Sulla
Selective Earth-fault Protection
Unearthed network:

SEIG sustains voltage
and currents as in the grid
connected case

Same directional earth-fault relays
can be used, theoretically
IG
I
fault

C
0,k
V
0

I
0f

I
0unf

Selectivity depends on
the total network C
0,tot
and the C
0,k
of each
single feeder
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© Francesco Sulla
Selective Earth-fault Protection
Resonant-earthed network:

SEIG sustains voltage
and currents as in the grid
connected case


Same directional earth-fault relays
can be used, theoretically
IG
I
fault

V
0

I
0f

I
0unf

If the network configuration
does not change in island


Same settings can be used
as in grid connected
operation
R
N
+jX
Pet

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g

© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
Short-circuit Protection and faults on LV system
 LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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E
l
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c
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r
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a
l

E
n
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g

© Francesco Sulla
Unselective Short-circuit Protection

IG
Undervoltage relays V< can be used to trip the SEIG

STATCOM should not impact on V< operation

Is selective short-circuit protection possible at all?
Rela
y
0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
p
.
u
.
]
time [s]
Three-phase short-circuit
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© Francesco Sulla
Selective Short-circuit Protection
 Normal-speed relays with operate time of 40 ms may
assure selectivity for short-circuit faults for high rating IG
 Faster (20 – 30 ms) relaying is needed for low rating IG

Does a relay see enough fault current to trip?

- Sampled current
- Calculated Phasor
(Fourier Full Cycle)
- Relay setting
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
0
5
10
Three-phase short-circuit
I
A

[
p
u
]


0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
0
5
10
I
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
400 kVA
1000 kVA
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© Francesco Sulla
Protection on Low Voltage system
The SEIG may supply loads through a distribution
transformer

10 kV
400 V
400 V
10 kV
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© Francesco Sulla
Protection on Low Voltage system
Lower fault current than in the
grid connected operation is
possible
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
a) b)
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
V
A

[
p
u
]
time [s]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
5
10
15
20
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
u
]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I
f

[
p
u
]
time [s]
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Z
Lph
+Z
LPE
=1.5O
Grid connected - SEIG in island
Longer time
required by fuses
Undervoltage relay
may trip
Unselective
disconnection of SEIG
for a fault on the LV
Problem.....
0 5
0
0.5
1
Voltages
V
A

[
p
.
u
.
]
0 2 4 6
0
0.5
1
V
A

[
p
.
u
.
]
time [s]
0 5
0
10
20
I
f

[
p
.
u
.
]
Currents
0 5
0
0.5
1
1.5
I
f

[
p
.
u
.
]
time [s]
Z
LPh
+Z
LPE
=0O
Z
LPh
+Z
LPE
=0.8O
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© Francesco Sulla
Content
 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)
 Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults
 Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits
 Unselective / Selective Protection
 Earth-fault Protection
 Short-circuit Protection
LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG
 Conclusions
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© Francesco Sulla
LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG

Open CB1 and clear the fault after 100 ms












Is the SEIG able to ride through the fault?
Lab tests show that the SEIG is able to
remagnetize after fault clearing

IG
0.2 Pload
Pload = 0.8 SIG
0.4 Pload
0.4 Pload
CB1
Pload is partly
constituted by
motor load
=
STATCOM
Braking
Resistors
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© Francesco Sulla
Motor load strongly deteriorates the short-circuit
ride-through capability of a SEIG
STATCOM and B.R.:
- 2 % Motor load
- 6 % Motor load
- 10 % Motor load
LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG

Three-phase short-circuit
LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG

0 5 10 15
0
0.5
1
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
u
]
Resistive and Motor load
0 5 10 15
1
1.5
S
p
e
e
d

[
p
u
]
time [s]
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© Francesco Sulla
SEIG with STATCOM and B.R. has good ride-through
capability for earth-faults
Earth-fault
LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG

STATCOM and B.R.:
Solid earth-fault in
unearthed network
cleared after 1 s
0 5 10 15
0.9
1
1.1
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
u
]
10% Motor load, 5 km cable
0 5 10 15
0.9
1
1.1
S
p
e
e
d

[
p
u
]
time [s]
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© Francesco Sulla
Conclusions
 SEIG demagnetizes for short-circuits but not for earth-faults

 Unselective protection can be achieved with V< and V
0
>
relays. New algorithm for calculating V
0


 SEIG sustains the voltage at an earth-fault, therefore
selective earth-fault protection is possible

 The IG is capable of riding through an earth-fault

 Selective short-circuit protection is easier for high rating IG.
Ride through may not be satisfactory

 Faults on the Low Voltage system may cause unselective
tripping of the SEIG
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© Francesco Sulla
Future Work
 Lab short-circuit tests with STATCOM, earth-fault
tests. Check selectivity issues

 On field test of the V
0
estimation algorithm


 Further investigation on ride-through capability.
Possibility for improvements? How other generation
source type impact on it?

 Further investigate the impact of faults on the Low
Voltage distribution system

Analyze Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)

Background
Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering

Power blackouts happen... (Sweden 2003 and 2005)
300 262.5

Utilities must pay compensation costs

Compensation [%]

212.5 162.5 112.5 62.5 12.5 0 0 5 10 Interruption time [days] 15

Island Operation of DG may reduce interruption time Induction Generators (IG) are common among DG

© Francesco Sulla

Objectives
Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering

Study the protection of a distribution network in island operation with IG
 Analyze the behavior of the IG during earth-fault and shortcircuit conditions through simulations
• Different from the behavior of a synchronous generator? • How the STATCOM influences this behavior?

Requirements on the protection system:
• Change as little as possible from the actual situation • Find solutions (least costly as possible) to assure correct fault clearing and compliance with law requirements

© Francesco Sulla

Content
Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering

 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions

© Francesco Sulla

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering The IG may self-excite if C are connected at its terminals The intersection gives the operating point at no-load © Francesco Sulla .

Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering No-load 300 The intersection is the new stable operating point with a load 250 200 Voltage [V] IG With load C 0 1 2 3 4 5 Current [A] 6 7 8 9 150 100 50 0 Operating point © Francesco Sulla .

IG With load The intersection represents all the possible stable operating points C © Francesco Sulla .Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering The procedure can be repeated for different frequencies….

Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering © Francesco Sulla Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) .

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

. CB RN+jXPet IG If IPetersen ICap Actual situation with Petersen coil earthing © Francesco Sulla ....Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering The distribution network.

Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering In island operation the distribution network may be unearthed CB RN+jXPet IG If ICap Unearthed system with an IG in island © Francesco Sulla .

Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering In island operation the distribution network may be unearthed CB RN+jXPet IG If ICap Unearthed system with an IG in island © Francesco Sulla .

Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Resonant earthing is also possible in island operation CB RN+jXPet IG If IPetersen ICap Island operation with Petersen coil earthing © Francesco Sulla .

the SEIG does not demagnetize  E’ behind X’ The IG can be represented by:  Zneg © Francesco Sulla .Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering At a phase-to-earth fault on an unearthed or resonant-earthed MV network.

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  The IG three-phase short-circuit current decays t t U   )e  Tr  cos(   )e  Ts  ia  t   cos( s t     '  2 2 s L    L’ limits the current magnitude.8 ms 1 MVA with Tr = 33.5 ms © Francesco Sulla . Tr determines how fast the sinusoidal current component decays  A more accurate short-circuit current formula is derived in the thesis  Two cases considered in the simulations: 400 kVA with Tr = 16.

06 0.18 10 1000 kVA 5 0 0.08 0.14 0.18 time [s] © Francesco Sulla .18 10 1000 kVA IA [pu] 5 0 0.16 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.1 0.Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering The SEIG demagnetizes at any short-circuit in the network  Large IG demagnetize slower than small IG  Phase-phase short-circuits cause slower demagnetization 10 IA [pu] Three-phase short-circuit 400 kVA 10 IA [pu] Phase-phase short-circuit 400 kVA 5 0 0.16 0.18 time [s] IA [pu] 5 0 0.12 0.06 0.12 0.1 0.16 0.06 0.12 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.1 0.16 0.08 0.14 0.

02 without STATCOM with STATCOM STATCOM Currents (p.u.) 1.98 1 1.) 4 2 0 0.02 1.u.06 1 0.Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering A STATCOM does not influence much the short-circuit current of a SEIG Three-phase short-circuit 6 Ia (p.04 1.96 ISTATCOM Iq Id 0.5 0 0.06 © Francesco Sulla .98 1 time (s) 1.96 0.04 1.

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

Selectivity Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Is it possible to achieve selectivity in a bigger island-operated system with SEIG? Rela y CB RN+jXPet IG © Francesco Sulla .

Unselective / Selective Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Unselective protection Rela y CB RN+jXPet IG SEIG is disconnected © Francesco Sulla .

Unselective / Selective Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Selective protection Rela y CB RN+jXPet IG Only faulted feeder is disconnected © Francesco Sulla .

2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 b) Need to change feeder relay settings (before and after) Ride through capability of the SEIG? Z Lph +Z LPE =0 6 © Francesco Sulla 1 .6 0.Unselective / Selective Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Unselective protection: Small island systems No need to change feeder relay settings Protection relays at SEIG station Selective protection: Bigger island systems V [pu] A a) 1 0.4 0.8 0.

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on the LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

2 Z Lph +Z LPE =0 b) Negative sequence current is too small for high resistive earth-faults and cannot be used for protection 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 © Francesco Sulla 1 .4 0.6 0.Unselective Earth-fault Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering High resistive earth-faults up to 5 kΩ must be disconnected The zero sequence voltage V0 must be used for high resistive earth-fault detection Unearthed network Resonant-earthed network V [pu] A a) 1 0.8 0.

8 Ineg 4 Ctot [F] 0 1 2 0 V [pu] 0.6 Only limited amount of cables is allowed 0 2 0.4 0.5 V0 decreases with Ctot V0 [pu] V0 0 0 2 4 6 8 x 10 2 a) 1 Ctot must be limited to In (%) -6 b) detect high resistive faults 1 0.Unselective Earth-fault Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering In unearthed networks: Rf = 5 kΩ 0.2 0 6 Z Lph +Z LPE =0 8 x 10 -6 A 3 4 5 6 © Francesco Sulla 1 .

04 50 100 150 200 Compensation level (%) 250 0.] Earth-fault with Rf = 5 k and 5 km cables 0.8 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.05 0.08 V0 [p.06 0.12 0.u.04 0.09 0.1 0.02 0 0 V [pu] 0.2 0 0 1 100% Compensation Z +Z =0 Lph LPE A 1 2 3 time [s] 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 Calculations © Francesco Sulla Simulations with SEIG 1 .4 0.06 1 a) b) 5 km cables 10 km cables 0.6 0.Unselective Earth-fault Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Zero sequence voltage (pu) In resonant earthed networks attention must be given to the Petersen coil tuning Earth-fault with Rf = 5000  0.1 0.

Unselective Earth-fault Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering The zero sequence voltage must be sensed on the Dside of the step-up transformer  traditionally.4 Z +Z =0 is  The estimation  0.6 0.2 cheaper than the 0 measurement 0 1 2 3 4 Lph LPE A 5 6 © Francesco Sulla 1 . use 3 broken-delta connected VTs  estimate V0 by using only 1 VT on the D-side  V0 can be accurately estimated if all parameters a) b) are known 1 0.8 V [pu] 0.

k of each single feeder © Francesco Sulla .Selective Earth-fault Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Unearthed network: SEIG sustains voltage and currents as in the grid connected case I0f Ifault I0unf V0 IG C0. theoretically Selectivity depends on the total network C0.tot and the C0.k Same directional earth-fault relays can be used.

Selective Earth-fault Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Resonant-earthed network: SEIG sustains voltage and currents as in the grid connected case I0f Ifault I0unf RN+jXPet V0 IG Same directional earth-fault relays can be used. theoretically If the network configuration does not change in island Same settings can be used as in grid connected operation © Francesco Sulla .

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection and faults on LV system  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

1 time [s] 1.u.9 1 1.2 1.] 4 3 2 1 IG 0 0.3 © Francesco Sulla .Unselective Short-circuit Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Undervoltage relays V< can be used to trip the SEIG STATCOM should not impact on V< operation Is selective short-circuit protection possible at all? Three-phase short-circuit 6 Rela y 5 Current [p.

14 time [s] 1000 kVA 0.06 10 0.16 0.Relay setting IA [pu] 5 0 0.Calculated Phasor (Fourier Full Cycle) .16 0.14 0.08 0.08 0.Selective Short-circuit Protection Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Does a relay see enough fault current to trip? 10 IA [pu] Three-phase short-circuit 400 kVA 5 0 0.06 0.18 .12 0.1 0.12 0.Sampled current .1 0.18  Normal-speed relays with operate time of 40 ms may assure selectivity for short-circuit faults for high rating IG  Faster (20 – 30 ms) relaying is needed for low rating IG © Francesco Sulla .

Protection on Low Voltage system Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering The SEIG may supply loads through a distribution transformer 10 kV 400 V 10 kV 400 V © Francesco Sulla .

.6 0.] Longer time required by fuses Currents 20 10 0 0 1.5 0 0 2 4 time [s] 6 5 5 V [pu] 1 0..Protection on Low Voltage system Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering VA [p.2 Undervoltage relay may trip a) Z Lph +Z LPE =0 b) A 1 0.5 0 0 1 0.] ZLPh+ZLPE=0 Problem...u.u.5 If [p.u.8 0.] Lower fault current than in the grid connected operation is possible Grid connected . 0.8  0 Unselective disconnection of SEIG for a fault on the LV 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 5 1 © Francesco Sulla .5 0 0 time [s] ZLPh+ZLPE=0.] V [p.4 0.SEIG in island Voltages 1 If [p.u.

Content Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)  Behavior of the SEIG at earth-faults  Behavior of the SEIG at short-circuits  Unselective / Selective Protection  Earth-fault Protection  Short-circuit Protection  LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG  Conclusions © Francesco Sulla .

4 Pload Braking Resistors Pload is partly constituted by motor load Is the SEIG able to ride through the fault? Lab tests show that the SEIG is able to remagnetize after fault clearing © Francesco Sulla .8 SIG IG = STATCOM 0.LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Open CB1 and clear the fault after 100 ms CB1 0.2 Pload 0.4 Pload Pload = 0.

2 % Motor load .10 % Motor load 5 time [s] 10 15 Motor load strongly deteriorates the short-circuit ride-through capability of a SEIG © Francesco Sulla .: .R.5 0 0 5 10 15 STATCOM and B.LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Three-phase short-circuit Resistive and Motor load Voltage [pu] 1 0.5 1 0 .6 % Motor load Speed [pu] 1.

5 km cable Voltage [pu] 1.9 0 5 time [s] 10 15 5 10 15 STATCOM and B.LV Ride-through capability of a SEIG Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering Earth-fault 10% Motor load. has good ride-through capability for earth-faults .1 1 0.R.9 0 1.: Solid earth-fault in unearthed network cleared after 1 s © Francesco Sulla Speed [pu] SEIG with STATCOM and B.1 1 0.R.

Conclusions Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  SEIG demagnetizes for short-circuits but not for earth-faults  Unselective protection can be achieved with V< and V0> relays. therefore selective earth-fault protection is possible  The IG is capable of riding through an earth-fault  Selective short-circuit protection is easier for high rating IG. Ride through may not be satisfactory  Faults on the Low Voltage system may cause unselective tripping of the SEIG © Francesco Sulla . New algorithm for calculating V0  SEIG sustains the voltage at an earth-fault.

Possibility for improvements? How other generation source type impact on it?  Further investigate the impact of faults on the Low Voltage distribution system Analyze Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) © Francesco Sulla . earth-fault tests.Future Work Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering  Lab short-circuit tests with STATCOM. Check selectivity issues  On field test of the V0 estimation algorithm  Further investigation on ride-through capability.