TK090207 : Manajemen Operasi



Topic: Silabus & Prinsip-Prinsip Manajemen

Silabus Manajemen Operasi


TK090207 : Manajemen Operasi TK090207 : Operation management Credits: 2 sks (Systems of Unit Credits) Semester: V Memberikan pengertian/pemahaman tentang manajemen dan dasar-dasar manajemen operasi dalam pabrik kimia dan industri pada umumnya agar dalam pekerjaannya mereka dapat berperan secara maksimal pada jalur profesional maupun managerial. To give basic understanding concerning management and the basics of operation management in chemical factory and industry in general in order that in their work they can have a role maximally in either professional or managerial aspects.

Silabus Manajemen Operasi


Mahasiswa mampu mengimplementasikan manajemen operasi pada pabrik kimia dan industri pada umumnya. Mahasiswa mampu menghitung biaya operasi dan biaya lainnya. Students are capable to implicate operation management on chemical factory and industry in general. Students are capable to count operation cost and other costs. Prinsip-prinsip manajemen: perencanaan, pengorganisasian, aspek sumber daya manusia dalam manajemen dan pengendalian. Dasar-dasar struktur permodalan, struktur pembiayaan dan biaya operasi . Penentuan kapasitas, tata letak dan lokasi pabrik kimia Dasar-dasar pengaturan kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja pada industri kimia.


2004.. The basics of capital structure. Ashgate Publishing Limited. The decision of capacity. cost structure and operation cost..Silabus Manajemen Operasi 4 The management principles: planning. Hungry Minds. UTAMA/ 1982 REFERENCES Ellen New . Aldershot-England. ( Babcoek. Benowitz. Inc. New York. Principles of management. Tony Morden. Managing of Engineering and Technology. Principles of management. CliffsQuickReview™ Principles of management. lay out and location of chemical factory. Richard Erwin Inc. The basics of health management and job safety in chemical industry. 2nd Ed.. actuating and controlling. DL. organizing. 8 ed. PUSTAKA Terry GR.

through the deployment and manipulation of resources ( The guidance and control of action required to execute a program.usdoj. www. the individuals charged with the responsibility of conducting a program. “management” (from Old French ménagement “the art of conducting. intellectual or intangible). … en. often a business. completed efficiently and effectively with and through people is called management. Also. http://wiki. directing”.htm .answers.WHAT IS management  The process of activities.wikipedia. from Latin manu agere “to lead by the hand”) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization.

First line managers (supervisors and manager) 2.MANAGER Manager Definition: Descriptions the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals. and taking corrective action when necessary. .com/od/policiesandprocedures/g/manager1. http://management.Top Managers….Middle managers (Responsible for implementation …) 3. monitoring their work.about. 3 LEVELS OF MANAGERS 1.htm Function: Approaches: A manager's primary function is to solve problems A manager's understanding of his or her approach to problems and problem-solving style most often used is an essential early step to becoming a more effective creative problem solver.

. changing external and internal environments are expected rather than assumed away. complexity is less bothersome. rules to be followed.MANAGER Manager Two basic problem-solving styles: Descriptions systematic Systematic thinkers are logical and rational. and computer programs that grind to a recommendation. Compared with systematic thinkers. They prefer narrow and focused problems. for the intuitive thinker. intuitive Intuitive thinkers are more comfortable with solutions that just "came to" them. and being more or less right is more important than being precisely wrong. step by step processes. data are less important.

7. Customer/Client Focus Developing Others Initiative / Proactivity Strategic Business Sense Motivation Leadership Communication (verbal & writing) Teamwork and Cooperation – bekerjasama dengan orang lain yang menjadi bagian dari tim. 6. 4. 8. Kemampuan yang harus dimiliki oleh manager: Commitment to Continuous Learning – untuk memperbaiki kepribadian dan keterampilan. . 9. 3. Conceptual Thinking – untuk mengklarifikasi problem/situasi yg kompleks dan tidak jelas menjadi jelas. 10.Manager Competencies  1. 2. 5. pengetahuan dan kemampuannya.

MOTIVATION  Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine:  1) direction of behavior in an  Intrinsic Motivation:  refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual (because it is enjoyble and the challenge of finding a solution) rather than from any external or outside rewards. such as money or grades. refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual (rewards such as money or grades).  Extrinsic Motivation:  www.csupomona. 2) the effort or how hard people work.htm . 3) the persistence displayed in meeting goals.

Managers at all levels have their own leadership style.   Some leaders delegate and support subordinates. others are very authoritarian.LEADERSHIP  Leadership is the process. .  Effective leadership  increases the firm’s ability to meet new challenges. where a person   exerts influence over others and inspires. Personal Leadership Style:  the ways leaders choose to influence others. motivates and directs their activities to achieve goals.   Leader: The person exerting the influence.

BUT.  Takes time for members to work together. not all groups are teams.  Teams can improve organizational performance.Groups.   . Teams and Effectiveness  Group:  two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish a goal. All teams are groups. Teams often are difficult to form.  Team:  group who work intensively with each other to achieve a specific common goal.

 Motivation: members of groups. and particularly teams.   Teams consist of members of different departments.Competitive Advantage with Groups & Teams  Performance Enhancement: Make use of synergy  Workers in a group have the opportunity to produce more or better output than separate workers. bring new ideas to bear. Safety issues.   It is fun to work next to other motivated people.   Responsive to Customers: Difficult to achieve given many constraints. costs.   Members correct other’s errors. regulations. Managers should build groups with members of complimentary skills. Managers should empower the team for the full innovation process. Cross-functional teams provide the wide variety of skills needed. Team members see their contribution to the team.  Innovation: individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed.   Team members also uncover flaws and develop new ideas.  Teams also provide social interaction . are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals.

Task Force: created to meet a given objective. Research and Development Teams: Create new products. Cross-functional: members of different departments. Top management team: help develop firm’s direction.       Important to have diversity in it to avoid group think. .Formal Groups & Teams created by manager to meet the firm’s goals.  Team decides how to do the task. Cross-cultural: members of different cultures.  Self-Managed Teams: members are empowered to complete some given work. Command Groups: members report to same manager.  Standing committees are permanent task forces.

Foster innovation  Effective communication is needed by all Managers. writing (written communication). . they are effective listeners. Finally. They are also effective at getting their message whether it is an e-mail or report.COMMUNICATION  Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal means--speech (oral communication). or behavior. signals. Become more responsive to customers. signs. Importance of Good Communication allows a firm to      Learn new skills and technologies. They are effective speakers and can put their points forward clearly. Improve Quality of their product or service.  Successful managers are effective communicators in 3 areas.

 Starts with the Sender who wants to share information.  Receiver next decodes the message. can lead to mis-understanding. Receiver: person getting the message. a process called encoding. Sender must decide on a message to share Sender also puts the message into symbols or language.     Noise: anything harming the communication process Messages are transmitted over a medium to a receiver. Transmission phase: information is shared by 2 or more people.   This is a critical point. Feedback phase: a common understanding is assured.  Feedback is started by receiver and states that the message is understood or .   Medium: pathway the message is transmitted on (phone.The Communication Process  Communication consists of two phases: 1. letter). 2. Decoding allows the receiver understand the message.

Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. Communication Skills for Managers as Senders     Send clear and complete messages.  Ask questions to clarify your understanding. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message.    Speed. tone. Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands.    Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers   Pay Attention to what is sent as a message. pausing all impact communication. Select a medium appropriate for the message AND monitored by the receiver. This is particularly true across cultures.   Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers. Provide accurate information to avoid rumors. Managers should expect and plan for this .

The Communication Process Transmission Phase Messages Encoding Medium Decoding Sender Noise Receiver (now sender) Decoding Medium Encoding Message s Feedback Phase .

Dangers of Ineffective Communication  Managers spend most of their time communicating so both they and the subordinates must be effective communicators.  There is no one “best” medium. Consider information richness: the amount of information a medium can carry. Is there a need for a paper/electronic trail to provide documentation?   . To be effective:   Select an appropriate medium for each message.  Medium with high richness can carry much information to aid understanding.

com/2009/12/14-principles-of-management-by-henry-fayol/ . are derived through observation and analysis of events which managers have to face in practice. underlying factors that form the foundations of successful management. serve as guidelines for decisions and actions of managers.The Principles of management Definition The principles of management : are statements of fundamental truth.bizearly. http://www. are the essential.

the workers speed and accuracy in its performance increases. Advantages Specialization results in efficiency. By separating a small part of work. It leads to better work with the same effort. evolved the following fourteen principles of management in his book General and Industrial management (1916) 1st principle: Division of Work The specialization of the workforce according to the skills a person . creating specific personal and professional development within the labour force and therefore increasing productivity. leads to specialization which increases the efficiency of labour.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) who was the first to provide a conceptual framework of management. This principle is applicable to both technical as well as managerial work. .

It is the obligation of a person to perform his duties towards a job.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Disadvantages Worker suffers boredom because of repletion of the same type of work. He cannot say that he has delegated the responsibility to the production engineer. Difficult to reschedule if any worker is absent. Responsibility crops up with authority. In the other words it is the power given to a person to extract work from his subordinates. 2nd principle: Authority and responsibility/ kekuasaan dan tanggung jawab Authority is the legal right to command over others to do an act or not to do an act. . Authority may be delegated where as responsibility cannot be delegated. For example: The production manager is answerable to the General Manager if the production is very less.

2. . diligence. Discipline is “respect for agreements.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) People often seek of authority but fear of responsibility. Authority without responsibility and responsibility without Authority are the major defects of any organization. Therefore. Maintenance of discipline requires: 1. with in the limits fixed by the agreement between management and its employees. The essence of discipline is obedience. Good supervisors at all levels. sincere effort for completing a given task and outward marks of respect”. management should clearly arrange and distribute the Authority and Responsibility 3rd principle: Discipline Discipline is very much essential for the smooth running of any organization. The fear of responsibility spoils initiative and destroys other good qualities. correct attitude and outward mark of respects. Clear and fair agreements.

The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) 4th principle: Unity of Command A subordinate should receive orders and instructions from one superior only. . This means that there should be one head and one plan for each group of activities having the same objectives. 5th principle: Unity of Direction_ One head – One Plan. there will not be any discipline. Similar activities should be grouped together under one manager. Unity of command cannot function without unity of direction. Only then all efforts could be directed towards the common goal. If it is not followed. A sub-ordinate needs to receive orders only from one superior because multiple commands will cause confusions and conflicts. But it does not mean that a superior should have only one sub-ordinate. Therefore a sound management should avoid dual commands.

an employee interest is to earn money to meet his personal needs whereas the organization interest is to maximize the production and develop the factory. It should be fair . effective supervision and good example. It is necessary to maintain unity and to avoid friction among the employees. The supervisors should set the following to others to maintain general interest: Fair agreements. 7th principle: Remuneration is the money paid to the employees for their Remuneration of physical and mental efforts in carrying out a work.e.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) 6th principle: Sub-ordination of Individual Interest Individuals who work for an organization should sacrifice their interest for the benefit of the organization i. The interest of an organization is more important than the interest of an employee. Fair and personnel/upah equitable remuneration should be provided to employees to personel ensure better production and satisfaction. the common interest. In any industry.

power should be decentralized. Only the top executive at the centre takes all the decisions. the organization is centralized. It has a shorter span of control. Over lapping any one in the organization structure will spoil 9th principle: Scalar Chain . In an organization for certain important decisions power should be centralized. Scalar chain means “ line of authority” Instructions and orders should be sent from top level to the bottom level only through the line of authority. There should be an unbroken line of power and command from top level to bottom level. When the power is being dispersed/delegated then it is called de-centralization. It has more span of control.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) 8th principle: Centralization If the power and responsibilities are retained at top level management. For effective management. For Quick and Routine decisions. decentralization is necessary.

A place for everything and everything in its place “material order” and a place for every one and everyone in his place is called “social order”.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) 10th principle: Order Arrangement of things and persons. It is better to keep a manager of average ability than a very efficient manager who merely comes and goes. training and placement are necessary so that materials can be easily taken out and men can be easily located. Order is of two types: Material order and Social order. This would help to improve the employee’s morale. There will not be any friction among the employees. 11th principle: Equity/kesamaan 12th principle: Stability of tenure of personnel/stabilit as masa jabatan . People who work in an organization should not be allowed to move out quite frequently because stable and secure work force is an asset to any organization. sincerity and loyalty.Scientific Selection. Every one in an organization should be treated equally – fair play and justice.

management should avoid the policy of “divide and rule”. welfare facilities etc. Team spirit and a sense of unity and togetherness should be fostered and administrated. Everyone should be given an equal opportunity to use their creativity and come out with better ideas of doing the work. When employees come forward with new ideas. 13th principle: Initiative Initiative is the power of thinking and executing any task with enthusiasm voluntarily. It is a French word. Union is strength. which means “feeling of harmony and union among personnel” of an organization.The Principles of management Henri Fayol (1841-1925) The management should create favorable working conditions by providing good salary. they must be encouraged. It improves good morale among the employees. promotion opportunities.. 14th principle: Espirit de corps . new methods etc.

leader ship (he should have the leadership skills. take decision and risk and get. 2. . second line (Middle managers. Power delegation (To share authority and responsibility among the team according to capability. Problem solving Approach (Should be able to solve the problems of in teams regarding the organization and personal. MAIN CHARACTERSITICS OF MANAGER 1. Decision making (Takes decision at any level of in authority and do the needful. 3. Manager is first/ major part of organization who is responsible for activities. deal between top management and first line and top line managers who bring policies make lot of time in planning and takes decision. Simply a manager is one who innovate. It may be first line manager (supervisors). 4.FACTORS of Management 6 Factors 1) MANAGER: Description of FACTORS OF management Very important factor should have qualified skilled leader.

Skilled about the modern machinery & its use .. invest and takes risk. Placing of right man at right place is staffing) .. It have four important parts. when it innovate.FACTORS of Management FACTORS OF management (continue. 3) STAFFING: (It is a labor through with production or output obtained.. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATION: 1) 2) 3) 4) PRODUCTION MARKETTING HUMAN RESOURCES FINANCE The organization are based on above four factors and arrange the people in order to achieve the desire goals.The responsibilities of staff .Shortage of managerial manpower . It is systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some 2) ORGANIZATION: specific purpose.Relation of organizational structure to staffing .

. These are followed by all strictly 5) COUNTER CHECK: 6) RULES:- .FACTORS of Management FACTORS OF management (continue.Trade recognition of the problems .Technical qualification & short courses of staff . These are hard and fast rules of organization..Suitable timings of work ... which may be applied from very beginning.Limitation of work in staff . This is factor of checking the desired result or output by some technical method as well as surprise check. Followed strictly the directive issued time to time according to the need.Personal interest of staff in filed of work .Keep in mind key factors of leadership .Personal relation with staff and manager .Rewards and benefits of staff 4) DIRECTIVES: (The orders passed from authorities for implementation to run organization effectively is called DIRECTIVES.

Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization.. e.The Five Functions of management 5 Functions Planning Description is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. its mission.. and the narrowest. . e.g.g. a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal.

is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function. Staffing . training. In the family business.The Five Functions of management 5 Functions Organizing Description is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders. staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators. Recruiting. coordination. hiring.

The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. measuring and reporting actual performance. leadership and discipline. and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary. Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm's objectives. . comparing the two.The Five Functions of management 5 Functions Directing Description is influencing people's behavior through motivation. communication. group dynamics.

PDCA_Plan. Act") untuk lebih menggambarkan rekomendasinya. Check. Act  PDCA singkatan dari arti Rencanakan. Do. Do. yang sering dianggap sebagai bapak pengendalian kualitas statistis. Metode ini dipopulerkan oleh W. Tindak lanjuti. Study. adalah suatu proses pemecahan masalah empat langkah iteratif yang umum digunakan dalam pengendalian kualitas. Belakangan. Edwards Deming. yang sering dianggap sebagai bapak pengendalian kualitas modern sehingga disebut dengan siklus Deming. Deming memodifikasi PDCA menjadi PDSA ("Plan. Shewhart. dari nama Walter A. Kerjakan.   Act Plan Act Plan Deming’s Cycle Check Do Modified Deming’s Cycle Study Do . Cek. Deming sendiri selalu merujuk metode ini sebagai siklus Shewhart.

Do. Do (Kerjakan) Implementasi proses. Check. Act (Tindak lanjuti) Menindaklanjuti hasil untuk membuat perbaikan yang diperlukan.    . Check (Cek) Memantau dan mengevaluasi proses dan hasil terhadap sasaran dan spesifikasi dan melaporkan hasilnya. Act  Plan (Rencanakan) Meletakkan sasaran dan proses yang dibutuhkan untuk memberikan hasil yang sesuai dengan spesifikasi. Ini berarti juga meninjau seluruh langkah dan memodifikasi proses untuk memperbaikinya sebelum implementasi berikutnya.PDCA_Plan.

Includes affection. 2. acceptance and friendship. thirst. These needs are: 1. and other bodily needs. . 4-Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect. sex. autonomy and achievement and external esteem factors such as status recognition and attention. belongingness.HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs.Physiological: Includes hunger. shelter.Social: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. As each becomes dominant.Safety: 3. 5.Selfthe drive to become what one is capable of becoming actualization: of these needs becomes substantially satisfied the next need includes growth achieving ones potential and self fulfillment.

untuk mencapai tingkatan aktualisasi diri. dapat memiliki banyak puncak dari pengalaman dibanding manusia yang kurang mengaktualisasi dirinya. Teori hirarki kebutuhan merupakan hipotesa Abraham Maslow bahwa setiap orang memiliki keinginan yang kuat untuk merealisasikan potensi potensi dalam dirinya. maka harus memiliki motivasi untuk mencapai aktualisasi diri. yang memiliki tingkatan atau hirarki. Manusia yang mengaktualisasikan dirinya. Untuk berhasil menjadi seorang manager.  Hal ini karena manusia mempunyai potensi untuk termotivasi dalam memenuhi kebutuhan-kebutuhan hidupnya.   . mulai dari kebutuhan dasar yang paling rendah (fisiologis) sampai yang paling tinggi (aktualisasi diri).

yaitu psikologis hingga paling tinggi yaitu mencapai aktualisasi diri. . pendekatan dan 2 macam gaya penyelesaian persoalan yang sangat berbeda. leadership. check. do. Mempelajari fungsi-fungsi.Lesson Summary 38    Pengertian Manajemen Mempelajari pengertian manajemen dan manajer. Mempelajari pengertian kompetensi/kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh seorang manajer (motivasi. Mempelajari faktor-faktor dan fungsi manajemen.        Mempelajari teori hirarki Maslow tentang tingkat pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup manusia dari yang paling dasar. yang pertama kali memberikan kerangka kerja konseptual manajemen. yaitu sistematis dan intuitif yang digunakan oleh manajer dalam mengambil keputusan-keputusan. Mempelajari siklus Deming atau pendekatan PDCA_plan. komunikasi dll) Prinsip-prinsip manajemen Memperlajari penjelasan prinsip menajemen untuk Mempelajari 14 prinsip-prinsip manajemen Henry Fayol. serta modifikasinya yaitu PDSA. act untuk menyelesaikan persoalan secara iteratif.