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Computing Fundamentals

Computer Hardware

MELJUN P. CORTES

Objectives

Identify types of computers and how they process information
Identify the function of computer hardware components Identify the factors to consider when buying computer equipment

Identify how to maintain computer equipment and solve common problems
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Introduction
When the computer was introduced, it’s said to be the greatest invention since man learned to use electricity.  Almost every aspect of people's lives is affected in some way by computers.  Computers are no smarter than the humans who program them.

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Some ways in which the computer is used:
• • • • • • • • •
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Word processing Calculations Communication Computer-assisted learning Research Presentations Database management Automation Entertainment
MELJUN P. CORTES Computing Next: Definition of Computer

What is a computer?
Computer is an electronic device that accepts, processes, stores, and outputs data at high speeds according to programmed instructions. There are two basic components that make up a computer: hardware and software.
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Computing

Next: Parts of a Computer

Parts of a Typical Computer
System Unit

Printer
Monitor

Keyboard
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Mouse

Computing

Next: Types of Computers

Types of Computers
Supercomputer

Microcomputer

IBM Blue Gene/L

Minicomputer Mainframe
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Next: Types of Microcomputers

Common Types of Microcomputers
Macintosh (Mac) Personal Computer (PC)

Handheld/PDA
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Laptop/Notebook

Computing

The Four Main Components of a Microcomputer
INPUT DEVICES Input devices allow us to enter information into the computer. They include keyboards, mice, scanners, and microphones. PROCESSING DEVICES Processing components manipulate the information once it is "in" the computer. In the microcomputer there is a set of common components consisting of the central processing unit (CPU), interface components, and memory (RAM). STORAGE DEVICES Storage devices store the entered information and programs for future use. Common storage devices include hard disks, floppy disks, and CD-ROMs. OUTPUT DEVICES Output devices are how the manipulated information is returned to us. They commonly include video monitors, printers, and speakers. MELJUN P. CORTES
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Computing

Parts of the System Unit

The System Unit
CD-ROM and/or DVD-ROM Drive

RAM

Network Card

ROM-BIOS

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Back 1. Common Hardware Problems 2. Computing Buying a computer 3. Next: Software

Input Devices
Microphone Keyboard

Mouse
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Scanner
Computing Other Input Devices

Other Input Devices
Barcode Reader Web Camera

Digital Camera

Joystick
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Computing

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Processing Devices
CPU

Measuring Memory

CPU
Pentium 4

Speed
1 GHz to 3 GHz

Release Date
Latest 1999

Pentium III 450 MHz to 1 GHz

Pentium II
Pentium 486 386 80286 8088

266 MHz
133 MHz 66 MHz 25 MHz 12.5 MHz 8 MHz

1997
1993 1989 1985 1982 1979

Random-Access Memory (RAM)
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Based on table courtesy of www.customguide.com

Computing

Storage Devices/Media
Diskette

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
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Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)
Computing More Storage Devices/Media

More Storage Devices/Media
Types of CDs: •CD-ROM •CD-R •CD-RW

Flash Card

CD-ROM (or DVDROM Drive)
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USB Flash Drive
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Output Devices

Printer

Monitor

Projector
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Speakers
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Monitors
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
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Parts of the Keyboard
Function Keys Numeric Keypad

Alphanumeric Keys
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Cursor Keys
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Parts of a Mouse
Mouse Actions: Right Button

1. Click
2. Double-click 3. Right-Click

Left Button

4. Point 5. Drag

Wheel (Not always available) Palm Rest How to hold the mouse Computing MELJUN P. CORTES Back

How to hold the mouse

Courtesy: www.internet4classrooms.com

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Printers

Dot Matrix

Inkjet

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Laser

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Motherboard

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Measuring Memory
Unit Bit Byte Abbreviation Size [Smallest Unit] 8 Bits

Kilobyte
Megabyte Gigabyte
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KB
MB GB
Computing

1, 024 bytes
1, 048, 576 bytes 1, 073,741,824 bytes/1, 024 MB
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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU Fan

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Random-Access Memory

DDRAM

SDRAM
SDRAM Photo courtesy of: www.oamao.com

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Hard Disk Drive

Cross-section of HDD MELJUN P. CORTES Computing Back to illustration

3.5” Floppy Disk Drive

Courtesy www.yedata.com

3.5 “ Floppy Disk
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PC Ports

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CD-ROM Drive

CD-ROM
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Video Card

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AGP Port

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Power Supply

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Network Card

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ROM-BIOS

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Common Hardware Problems
• Computer won’t start
– – – – – Be sure it is plugged in and there’s electricity Bad power supply Check the monitor RAM problem Bad hard drive

• Mouse is not working well/at all • Keyboard is not working • Printer: Paper Jams
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Computing

How to Buy a PC
• What is my purpose of buying a PC? • What OS will best support the applications that I will use? • Do I need portability? • Do I need versatility? • How about the warranties?

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Computing

Basic Troubleshooting

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Installing New Software