AE 415

Presented by: DESIREE C. CAPUNO BS AeE - IV

Introduction Advantages of a Hydraulic System Hydraulic System Components and Design Hydraulic Power Components Hydraulic System Interfaces Conclusion

so do the forces needed to move the flight controls … thus the need to transmit larger amount of power Air Turbine Pump 5 Hydraulic power is generated mechanically.Introduction 1 As airplanes grow in size. electrically and pneumatically 2 Hydraulic system transmits and controls power from engine to flight control actuators Pilot Inputs Electric Motorpump Ram Air Turbine Pump Hydraulic Storage/Conditioning Electric Generator Engine Pump Flight Control Actuators 3 Pilot inputs are transmitted to remote actuators and amplified 4 Pilot commands move actuators with little effort .

Introduction Hydraulics is based on the fact that liquids are incompressible. In it. . Hydraulic system is a system where liquid under pressure is used to transmit energy. An actuating cylinder converts hydraulic power to mechanical power. a hydraulic pump converts mechanical power to hydraulic power.

not a Shock Hazard Develops practically unlimited force .Advantages Lighter weight Ease of installation Simplification of inspection Minimum maintenance requirements Dead beat Fire Hazard.

position and magnitude Infinitely variable rotary or linear motion control Adjustable limits / reversible direction / fast response Ability to handle multiple loads simultaneously Independently in parallel or sequenced in series Smooth.Why use Hydraulics? Effective and efficient method of power amplification Small control effort results in a large power output Precise control of load rate. vibration free power output Little impact from load variation Hydraulic fluid transmission medium Removes heat generated by internal losses Serves as lubricant to increase component life .

.Principles of Operation Governed by Pascal’s law The oil is in contact with both sides of the piston head but at different pressures. The selector valve determines to which side of the actuating cylinder the high pressure oil (red colored side) is sent. High pressure oil may be pumped into either side of the piston head.

EVOLUTION OF THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM A basic hydraulic system consists of a supply of hydraulic fluid. an actuator. A double-acting actuator allows the actuator to be powered in both directions. A two-way valve allows selection of either side of the actuator. and a selector valve. . a pump.

A Simple Hydraulic System .

Hydraulic Fluid must be able hydraulic liquidsof the lines with a minimum also called to flow through all of opposition which power is transferred medium by must be incompressible in hydraulic machinery must have good lubricating properties to prevent wear in based on mineral oil or water. the pump and valves must inhibit corrosion and not chemically attack any of the seals in the system must not foam in operation HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND DESIGN .

Function     Property Low compressibility(high bulk modulus) Fast air release Low foaming tendency Low volatility Good thermal capacity and conductivity Medium for power transfer and control Medium for heat transfer Sealing Medium       Adequate viscosity and viscosity index Shear stability Viscosity for film maintenance Low temperature fluidity Thermal and oxidative stability Hydrolytic stability / water tolerance Cleanliness and filterability Antiwear characteristics Corrosion control Proper viscosity to minimize internal leakage High viscosity index Lubricant       Pump efficiency Special function Environmental impact Functioning life       Fire resistance Friction modifications Radiation resistance Low toxicity when new or decomposed Biodegrability Material compatibility .

Saybolt universal)] chemical stability the ability of the liquid to resist oxidation and deterioration for long periods flash point the temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor in sufficient quantity to ignite momentarily (flash) when a flame is applied fire point the temperature at which a substance gives off vapor in sufficient quantity to ignite and continue to burn when exposed to a spark or flame .instrument commonly used by engineers [reading: SSU (seconds.Characteristics considered when selecting a liquid for a system viscosity Viscosity is internal resistance to flow Saybolt universal viscosimeter.

Stoddard solvent Synthetic Fluid (Sky-drol) Non-petroleum Light base / purple phosphate-ester base Natural & Synthetic Fiber trichlorethylene .TYPES OF HYDRAULIC FLUID Type Vegetable-base Mineral-base Castor oil & alcohol Mixture Dye Compatible color seals (MIL-H-7644) Blue Cleanser Alcohol Flammab le Vegetable-base (MIL-H-7644) Mineral-base (MIL-H-5606) (MIL-H-5606) Red Natural rubber Synthetic Fluid Kerosene type petroleum (Sky-drol) Neoprene seals Naptha. Varsol.

steering. horizontal stabilizer. emergency electrical power generation Spoiler Actuator HYDR.Typical Users of Hydraulic Power Landing gear Extension. locking. thrust reverser Landing Gear Utility systems Cargo handling. braking Primary flight controls Rudder. doors. ramps. MOTOR Flap Drive GEARBOX TORQUE TUBE Nosewheel Steering . retraction. elevator. aileron. spoiler. active (multi-function) spoiler Secondary flight controls high lift (flap / slat).

mounted directly to engines on special gearbox pads Power Transfer Unit – mechanically transfers hydraulic power between systems Electrical Pump attached to electric motors. also used for emergency and parking brake AC Electric Motorpump Power Transfer Unit Maintenance-free Accumulator .Sources of Hydraulic Power Mechanical Engine Driven Pump (EDP) . either AC or DC Generally used as backup or as auxiliary power Electric driven powerpack used for powering actuation zones Used for ground check-out or actuating doors when engines are not running Ram Air Turbine Engine Driven Pump Pneumatic Bleed Air turbine driven pump used for backup power Ram Air Turbine driven pump deployed when all engines are inoperative and uses ram air to drive the pump Accumulator provides high transient power by releasing stored energy.primary hydraulic power source.

emergency supply of oil. air space for expansion of the oil due to temperature changes TYPES Integral In-line HYDRAULIC POWER COMPONENTS . thermal contraction of oil Provides pressure head on the pump. a place to remove air or foam from liquid. volume changes.Reservoir FUNCTIONS Holds reserve supply oil to account for normal leakage.

Pumps FUNCTION is to move fluid through the system transmitting hydraulic power TYPES Hand pump Powered pump Example of a hand pump .

Piston pumps: move fluid by pushing it through the motion of the pistons within the pump .Powered Pumps FUNCTION Is to change mechanical horsepower to hydraulic horsepower TYPES Gear pumps: move fluid based upon the number of gear teeth and the volume spacing between gear teeth.

The oil is moved around to the other side by the action of the drive gear itself and sent through the pressure line. .Powered Pumps PRINCIPLES OF GEAR PUMPS The liquid from the reservoir is pushed between the gear teeth.

the reverse occurs and the pistons push oil out through the outlet . space between the block and the pistons increase. As the block rotates from bottom dead center. letting in more oil.Powered Pumps PRINCIPLES OF RECIPROCATING PISTON PUMP As the cylinder block rotates.

and is not Priority valves normally concerned with the pressure. regulate. adjust. Quick-disconnect Relief valves Pressure control Pressure regulator Pressure-control valves. or limit the amount of pressure in the system. . or in any portion of the system.Valves TYPES Flow control Selector valves Check valves A flow-control valve selects the route of Sequence valves flow of the fluid through the system. on the other Pressure reducer hand.

Accumulators USES Absorbs the shocks due to rapid pressure variations in a hydraulic system Helps maintain a constant pressure within the hydraulic system Helps the hydraulic pump under peak pressure loads It is an emergency source of power Spherical shape is preferred for accumulators PRINCIPLE Gas valve lets in compressed gas at ½ system pressure Diaphragm pops up & oil is sent through system When system pressure>accumulator pressure. diaphragm deploys .

Single piston double rod is an equal displacement cylinder used in aileron system or automatic guidance system Double piston-double rod actuating cylinder used in bomb bay doors .Actuator The function is to take the pressure & hydraulic fluid flow & change them into linear or rotary motion.

How does a simple hydraulic system works? .

Principal System Interfaces Design Considerations Electrical System Flight Controls Flow under normal and all emergency conditions – priority flow when LG. Solenoids Power on Demand Electrical power variations under normal and all emergency conditions Hydraulic System Power on Demand Hydraulic power from EDP Nacelle / Engine Pad speed as a function of flight regime – idle to take-off Avionics Signals from pressure. temperature. electric motors Landing Gear Flow under normal and all emergency conditions – retract / extend / steer . flaps are also demanding flow Electric motors. fluid quantity sensors Signal to solenoids.

000 1.000 ss n Ph a 17 2 en om 1 Ki ng 00 Ai r2 Le 00 BA e J arj et ets 4 tre 5 am Le 4 1 a Ha rj et wk 85 C h er 4 0 all en 00 ge r Fa 605 l co n Gl F7X Gu oba l fs l XR Em tream S br ae G65 r 0 Bo ERJ ein -1 g 7 95 37 Ai -70 0 rb Bo us ein A3 g 7 21 Ai rbu 573 Bo s A3 00 ein 3 g 7 WIDEBODY SINGLE-AISLE 100.Aircraft Hydraulic Architectures Comparative Aircraft Weights 10.000.000 VERY LIGHT / LIGHT JETS / TURBO-PROPS GENERAL AVIATION 1.000.000 LARGE BIZ / REGIONAL JETS MID / SUPER MID-SIZE BIZ JETS / COMMUTER TURBO-PROPS 10.3 00 Bo 7 ein 7-3 g 7 00E R 47 -4 0 Ai 0E rbu R sA 38 0 Ce Increasing Hydraulic System Complexity .000 MTOW .

Conclusions  Aircraft hydraulic systems are designed for high levels of safety using multiple levels of redundancy  System complexity increases with aircraft weight .