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Aim: How can we describe the types of nutrition in living things? Do now: 1. What is nutrition? 2.

Why do living things need nutrition?

Nutrition: How an organism gets food (nutrients, organic compounds) and makes it available to the cells. Nutrients: useful portion of food: -sugar -amino acid -fat -starch Organic Compounds = FOOD!!!!!!

2 TYPES OF NUTRITION 1. Autotrophic nutrition – Auto (self) trophic (refers to feeding and nutrition) “Self feeding.” -Organisms that make their own organic compounds ex. Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis

a. Photosynthesis Photo (light) synthesis (creating, making) -Light is the source of energy for the production of food. -“Who?” ex. Plants


b. Chemosynthesis – Chemo (chemical) synthesis (creating, making) -Chemical activity is the source of energy for the production of organic compounds. Who? -organisms in environments that do not rely on the sun to make food. ex. Deep sea organisms

So far….. Nutrition: 1. Autotrophic: a. photosynthesis b. chemosynthesis Autotrophs – Organisms that can make their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

2. Heterotrophic nutrition – Hetero: other trophic: (refers to feeding and nutrition) “Fed by others.” - Heterotrophs: Organisms that eat organic compounds made by others. - ex. Animals or animal-like protists called protozoa: amoeba, paramecium. Proto (first) zoa (animal, zoo)

heterotrop hic

Examples of heterotrophs paramecium

More heterotrophs….

Obviously, a _________________ . heterotroph!

Are you a heterotroph? Summary: 2 types of nutrition on Earth: 1. Autotrophic - photosynthesis - chemosynthesis 2. Heterotrophic


are a complex organic compound, needed in small quantities Essential for maintenance of good health and good metabolism





be stored in body fat Vitamins A, D, E, K

be stored in body


fat Vitamins B and C

vitamin sources A Egg yolk, tomato, (retinol) carrot D Egg, milk, liver, synthesis by the skin (Calcifer in the presence of ol) sunlight E Milk, wheatgerm, (tocophe nuts, mustard, rol) cabbage K Egg yolk, cabbage,

functions Avoid night blindness -as antioxidants -for healthy skin -avoid ricket and tooth decay -aids in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in ileums -as an antioxidant -Avoid anemia -avoid muscular distrophy -for bloodclotting




B1 (thiamin) Milk, liver, yeast, whole -avoid beri-beri grain B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 B6 Milk, liver, yeast, whole -avoid sore eyes and grain swollen tongue Liver, whole grain Egg yolk, liver, meat, fish, green vegie Milk, Liver, meat, fish -avoid pellagra -avoid mental disorder -avoid ndisorder of nervous system -avoid depression, retarded growth, kidney stones

B12 C (ascorbic

Milk, egg, cheese, meat-avoid anemia Fresh fruits and -avoid scurvy


inorganic nutrients, must be obtain through diet because body cannot synthesis

 Macrominerals

in large quantity Eg: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and sodium
 Microminerals

in small quantity Eg:flourine, cobalt, iodine, manganese, zinc and

Minerals Sources Macromineral s Calcium and Milk. Cheese, phosphorus anchovies Sodium, Table salt, potassium meat, fish and chlorine


For strong bones and teeth Avoid muscle cramp, determine the osmotic pressure of blood

Microminerals Ferum Liver, eggs, spinach Production of haemoglobin

part of plant food which consists of cellulose and are not absorbed or assimilated into the body


 What

is  What is  What is  What is

balanced diet? vitamins? minerals? roughage?

 The

breakdown of large molecules (food) into small soluble molecules. This is done by digestive juices and enzymes. Once food is digested it can pass through your gut wall into your blood. Your blood then carries the digested food all around your body where it is used for growth, movement and repairing cells.

 Along

the pathway through our body our food is broken down into very small molecules by digestive juices and enzymes

 Herbivore

mammals  Eg. Cow, goat, giraffe, deer  Feed on plant cellulose


and rats family

 Feed

on plant – cellulose  Need cellulase to digest it  But ruminants do not produce cellulase  However their digestive system are specially adapted to carry out cellulose digestion

 Has

a stomach with 4 chambers: 1. rumen 2. reticulum 3. omasum 4. abomasum  Carry out rumination – process of regurgitating food

• the saliva of a cow contains no salivary amylase •To digest the plant material, herbivores need to depend on the cellulasesecreting microorganism in its digestive system

Rumen - first & largest compartment - contain bacteria that produced cellulase for the cellulose digestion - function as the fermentation chamber

Reticulum - also contains bacteria for digestion - content of reticulum called cud - regurgitation occurs - has a ‘honeycomb’ wall

Omasum - reswallowed cud will be sent here - large particle are broken down by peristalsis - water is removed


Abomasum - true stomach of the ruminants - gastric juice containing digestive enzymes - HCl and pepsin



- H2O







omasum rumen abomasum

 Their

caecum and appendix are enlarged to store the cellulase producing bacteria  Food pass the alimentary canal twice - first as food - then as soft

Soft and watery faeces usually produced at night

Eaten again

Pass out as hard and dry faeces during the day


Re-eat the faeces to absorb more nutrient




Small intestine

Digest cellulose

to enable the animals to absorb the products of bacterial breakdown  allow rodent to recover the nutrients initially lost with the faeces

• nutrient is absorb in the small intestine • but in rats, the microorganism that help to digest cellulose is in the caecum, the food must pass the small intestine before entering the caecum • So the faeces eliminate is actually soft and rich in nutrient • That’s why they have to re-eat the faeces in order to absorb all the nutrients

 The

alimentary canal (or gut) is a long tube inside the body  Any food in the alimentary canal is still outside the cells of the body  To get inside the molecules of the food have to be able to pass through the wall of the alimentary canal

‘The passage of small food molecules through the wall of the alimentary canal and into vessels that can transport them within the body’

 The

small intestine is very long -6m long inner surface on the intestine is folded -covered with many finger-like projections called villi -greatly increase the surface area in contact with digested food

 The

‘finger-like folds in the surface of the small intestine’ (Singular – villus)

 Each

villus has an extremely thin wall -only one cell thick -rapid absorption

 Each

villus is supplied with blood vessels to receive the absorbed foods -glucose/amino acids/vitamins/minerals are absorbed into blood capillaries -products of fat digestion absorbed into lacteal Now complete the ‘Notes’!!