MULTIPLE UNIT ARTIFICIAL RATINA CHIP (MARC

)

• Processed and then transmitted to the implant on retina. • The implant in-turn transmits these signals to the Ganglion cells and then to the optic nerve. .MARC – THE CONCEPT • The images are captured by an external camera.

MARC – THE CONCEPT .

Clock and power recovery • Current control and electrode simulator .BLOCK DIAGRAM • Video camera and processor • PWM encoder • Class E power amplifier • RF telemetry • Data.

BLOCK DIAGRAM .

less volume.EXTRA-OCULAR CMOS CAMERA AND VIDEO PROCESSING The CMOS image sensor : • Cost effective. SRAM buffers and CPLD or FPGA . less power • Easily mountable on a pair of glasses Video processing : • Implemented using ADC.

EXTRA-OCULAR CMOS CAMERA AND VIDEO PROCESSING .

ASK-PWM ENCODING • Each pulse encodes 1 bit of data • 0’s represented by 50% duty cycle pulses • 1’s represnted by alternating larger or smaller duty cycles (75% & 25% resp.) symmetric around 50% • Called as ALTERNATE MARK INVERSION .

CLASS E POWER AMPLIFIER • Highly efficient switching power amplifier • Works at very high frequencies(RF) .

RF TELEMETRY • Primary coil is present on camera and secondary under the eye • RF signals are transmitted from primary to secondary(receiver) • Mutual inductance is an important factor and should be maximized .

POWER RECOVERY • The high frequency RF carrier envelope is obtained by filtering the output of receiver coil • The sinusoidal signal is then amplified to suitable levels and then rectified • Rectification provides the required DC voltage power .

height and period Then the actual Image is transmitted • ASK demodulator obtains the PWM scheme • Delay Locked Loop (DLL) deciphers the PWM wave to obtain the Data transmitted .DATA & CLOCK RECOVERY • The low frequency data signal is obtained by a Low Pass filtering • The first RF signal conveys the configuration data which sets the pulse width.

CURRENT CONTROLLER AND STIMULATOR • Receives clocking and data info from deciphered PWM • 20 controlled variable current sources are used and connected to Demux • Each Demux produces 5 outputs and these outputs are connected to 100 electrodes • 4 bit(16 level) grayscale stimulus is provided by each current source .

HOW THE ELECTRODE LOOKS LIKE? .

TYPICAL IMAGE FORMATION .

more is the field of view • Less area is available so large electrodes can not be used • Better image is formed if more number of electrodes are present • Process must be very fast so that the patient sees everything in real time • Any noticeable lag can stimulate the "vestibularocular reflex". making people feel dizzy and sick.IMPORTANT ASPECTS • More the number of Ganglion cells are stimulated. .

FUTURE SCOPE .