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AESS Chapter Summit Exercise

Alternative Energy on the Smart Grid

Group IB Topic Leader: Ali Nabavi August 7, 2011

Smart Grid
The integration of power, communications, and information technologies for an improved electric power infrastructure serving loads while providing for an ongoing evolution of end-use applications[1].
[1]IEEE P2030/D5.0, 2-23-2011,Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation With the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads

Distinguishing characteristics of the Smart Grid, (NIST1108)

Increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid; Dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, with full cyber security; Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable resources; Development and incorporation of demand response, demand-side resources, and energyefficiency resources; Deployment of smart technologies for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation;

Distinguishing characteristics of the Smart Grid (Cont.)

Integration of smart appliances and consumer devices; Deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies, including plugin electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and thermalstorage air conditioning; Provision to consumers of timely information and control options; Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid; and Identification and lowering of unreasonable or unnecessary barriers to adoption of Smart Grid technologies, practices, and services.

Electricity production by primary energy source

Estimated reserves of the major fossil fuels in the world and their depletion

Challenge of the Future

Population growth Rising standard for living Climate change Increasing importance of electricity Increasing importance of efficiency

Alternative Energy Resources

Solar Radiation
o Concentrated Solar Plant (CSP) o Photo-Voltaic (PV) o Solar cell is still very costly o Uncertainty in energy supply Cloud effect Daily and seasonal routines

Wind power (global capacity factor 20-30%)

o Intermittency and difficulty of forecasting o Should be capable low-voltage ride-through

Grid View Challenges

Absence of standards and definitions Increasing the short-circuit level Reactive power control and voltage profile Bidirectional power flow Distribution grid protection Low-voltage ride through capability No island mode of operation

Hybrid Systems
The uncertainty can be supplemented through hybrid systems Hybrid systems: Couple PV and WP with
Storage batteries IC-engine-driven generators Fuel cells

o Advantages:
Stand-alone Hybrid Power Systems (for remote area) Capable of Microgrid operation (Islanded mode)

Storage Battery Systems

Smoothing power shift

Storage Battery Systems

Load leveling and peak shaving

Vehicle to Grid (V2G)

Investment in electric vehicles (EVs) has moved beyond the fringe;(Google spending $10 million for plug-in EV research and testing and Warren Buffett investing in a Chinese electric car company). The U.S. government has committed to a goal of 1 million plug-in EVs in the next five years and will provide more than $2 billion in stimulus spending for advanced battery development n hybrid electric systems. Most major domestic and international original-equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are planning to bring plug-in EVs to market within the next three years

V2G, Potential Electric Utility Impacts

increase energy usage on the electric utility grid Needs charging infrastructure In the future can be used as a storage battery system to supply energy to the grid

Power Electronic Interfaces

Most of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are connected to the grid through power electronic converters; DC-DC-AC, DC-AC, AC-DC-AC and direct AC-AC Challenges:
o Increase efficiency o Reduce the weight and volume