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Weight Considerations Wing Anatomy Angles of Attack Lift Characteristics and Theories Thrust Creation Drag Basics

• Understand the four fundamental forces of flight.
• Explain the relationship of weight and lift. • Define the term Angle of Attack. • Summarize how a wing (airfoil) produces lift. • Extend the concepts of lift to the creation of thrust. • Describe the influences of drag on an aircraft. • Explain the relationship of thrust and drag. • Discuss unclear concepts during the lesson.

• Fundamental aerodynamic principles • Safety • Professionalism & mastery

• Weight is the downward force vector which acts on an airplane. • Weight is the resulting force which results from everything that has mass on the Earth. • Why consider weight?

First steps to producing lift

Trailing Edge

Angle of attack +4°

Angle of attack +10°

What makes an airplane fly?

• Upward-acting force • Created by airfoils (wings) moving through the air • Basic principles:
• Bernoulli’s Principle – Differential Pressure • Newton’s 3rd Law – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

• As a fluid’s velocity increases, it’s pressure decreases • Venturi • Conservation of Energy

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Take out a piece of paper. Hold one end. Blow across the top of the paper. You should see the trailing edge rise up. By increasing the velocity of the air above the wing, you have decreased the pressure.

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Air is a fluid As air’s velocity increases, its pressure decreases Airflow above a wing is faster than beneath the wing Apply Bernoulli’s Principle to see how lift occurs

• Newton’s 3rd Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. • Lift from Impact/Upwash • Lift from Downwash

• Arrange the folder and tissue paper as instructed. • Use the straw to blow above the top of the folder (parallel to the table). • Anything happen? • Now blow directly onto the leading edge of the folder. • Anything happen?

• For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. • Air striking leading edge of wing creates upward force. • Air thrust downward off the trailing edge creates upward force.

• Basic elements to change:
• Wing Angle of Attack • Increase/Decrease the pressure differential • Increase/Decrease the amount of downwash • Wing Velocity • Total mass of air affected

• A car uses friction of the tires to the road to accelerate. • A propeller moves a mass of air to accelerate an airplane. • A prop is an airfoil just as the wing is an airfoil. • Essentially the prop creates lift to move laterally just as the wing produces lift to move vertically. • Instead of calling it lateral-lift, we call it Thrust.

• A force which opposes the motion of an object through a fluid (air in this case). • Newton’s First Law…“Every object persists in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed on it.” • The mass of the air resists motion of another body.

• Due to friction and Newton’s First law • Parasite drag increases with an increase in airspeed • Parasite drag results from: - Moving an object through air - Appendages sticking out - “Streamlinedness” of aircraft

• Resistance to motion due to the wing turning some lift into drag • The rearward component of lift. • Increasing angle of attack causes more vertical lift but the total lift vector is shifted further backward. • The higher the angle of attack, the more induced drag is being created. • Induced drag decreases with an increase in airspeed

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Aerodynamic forms Intermediate lift concepts Incorrect lift concepts Stalls and excessive Angles of Attack Aircraft loading Theoretical understanding of practical control inputs Flaps What makes an airplane turn? Forces in a climb/descent Ground effect

• Understand the four fundamental forces of flight.
• Explain the relationship of weight and lift. • Define the term Angle of Attack. • Summarize how a wing (airfoil) produces lift. • Extend the concepts of lift to the creation of thrust. • Describe the influences of drag on an aircraft. • Explain the relationship of thrust and drag. • Discuss concepts which are unclear.