# LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

GREENWICH MERIDIAN IS THE MERIDIAN THAT PASSES THROUGH THE TOWN OF GREENWICH IN ENGLAND. GREENWICH WAS VOTED TO BE 0˚ LONGITUDE. http://video.about.com/geography/Latitude-and-Longitude.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MjDqhLUzCpE&feature=fvwrel

NORTH POLE

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE

THE LOCATION OF A PLACE ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH IS DETERMINED BY ITS LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE

LATITUDE
• LATITUDE is the angle subtended by a meridian at the centre of the earth beginning from the equator to the parallel of latitude which is either to the North or to the South of the equator.

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE
LATITUDE

LATITUDE

LATITUDE
• DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO LATITUDES
– ON THE SAME SIDE – NORTH OF THE EQUATOR
• Difference between the two latitudes • E.g. 70˚N and 40˚ N = 30˚

• ON THE DIFFERENCE SIDES – NORTH AND SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR • E.g 15˚ and 43˚ = 15˚ + 43˚
»

= 58˚

LATITUDE Exercises
• Find the difference in latitude between each pair of latitudes below: • (a) 45˚ 23΄ N and 76˚ 48΄N • (b) 23˚ 45΄ N and 36˚ 15΄ S

• The difference in latitude between each pair of latitudes below: • (a) 76˚ 48΄ N - 45˚ 23΄ N = 31˚ 25΄ • (b) 23˚ 45΄ N + 36˚ 15΄ S = 60˚

LONGITUDES
• DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO LONGITUDES
– ON THE SAME SIDE – EAST OF GREENWICH MERIDIAN
• Difference between the two longitudes • E.g. 79˚E and 25˚ E = 54˚

• ON THE DIFFERENCE SIDES – EAST AND WEST OF GREENWICH MERIDIAN • E.g 42˚W and 110˚ E = 42˚ + 110˚
»

= 152˚

DISTANCE ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH
F

Longitude and Latitude N

A
C

40˚N

R P O

0o

B

Distance AB = 40˚ x 60’ = 2,400 nautical miles
Angle POR = 101.13 

angle POQ = 60.64 

Q

S

• 1˚ = 60’ • 1’ = 1 nautical mile • 1˚ = 60 nautical miles
A 50˚ B o

Distance AB = 50˚ x 60’ = 3,000 nautical miles

• 1˚ = 60’ • 1˚ = 60 nautical miles
P
130˚ 25’

Q o

Distance PQ = 130˚ 25’ x 60’ = 7,825 nautical miles

Stockholm (60˚ 15’ N, 18˚ 28’E) and Cape Town both fall on the same meridian . Cape Town is in the southern hemisphere and the distance between the two cities on the surface of the earth is 5650 nautical miles. Find the latitude of Cape Town. 5650 /60 = 94˚ 10’ - 60˚ 15’ = 33˚ 55’ S Latitude of Cape Town is 33˚ 55’ S

A plane flies east from a town P(0˚, 33˚W) to Q(0˚, 15˚ 25’W) and then flew west to R(0, 104 27’W) before landing. Find the total distance travelled in nautical miles. 6397nm

P(70˚S, 75˚E ), Q and R are three points on the surface of the earth. PQ is a diameter of the parallel of latitude 70 ˚ S. R lies 5400 nautical miles due north of P. (a) State the longitude of Q. (b) Find the latitude of R. (c) Calculate the distance in nautical miles, from P to Q measured along the parallel latitude.

P(70˚S, 75˚E ), Q and R are three points on the surface of the earth. PQ is a diameter of the parallel of latitude 70˚S. R lies 5400 nautical miles due north of P. (a) the longitude of Q is 115˚W (b) the latitude of R is 90 – 70 = 20 ˚ N 5400/60 = 90 ˚ .
115˚W

75˚E 20˚N 0˚ P 70˚S R

Q

(c) the distance in nautical miles, from P to Q measured along the parallel latitude = 180 ˚ x 60 x cos 70 ˚ = 3,693.82 nm

SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLVING DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS AND TRAVELLING ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH

An aeroplane flies due east from airport P(32˚S, 80˚E) to airport Q(32˚S 113˚E). After flying one third of the distance from P to Q, the aeroplane makes an emergency landing at T. To search and rescue , a helicopter flies from its base at (25 ˚ S, 86 ˚ E) due south at a speed of 450 knots to reach B on the parallel of latitude 32 ˚ S and then flies along the latitude to T. Find (a) the distance travelled from A to B. (b) the distance travelled from B to T. (c) the time taken, to the nearest minute , taken by the helicopter to arrive at T.

(a)32˚ – 25˚ = 7˚ x 60’ = 420 nm

(b)Longitude of T = 80˚ + 11˚ = 91˚
Difference in longitude between B and T is 91 ˚ - 86 ˚ = 5 ˚

(c)Distance travelled by the helicopter = 420 +
254.41 = 674.41
Total time taken is 674.41/450 = I hour 30 minutes

SPM ORIENTED QUESTION
• The table below shows the latitudes and longitudes of four points, A, B, C and D on the surface of the earth.
Point Latitude Longitude

A B

32˚N x˚S

24˚E 24˚E

C
D

32˚N
40˚S

y˚W
y˚W

(a) A is a point on the surface of the earth such that JA is a diameter of the earth. State the position of J. 32˚N 156 ˚ W (b) Calculate (i) The value of x, if the distance from A to B measured along the meridian is 4800 nautical miles. 48 ˚ (ii) The value of y, if the distance from A due west to C measured along the common parallel of latitude is 2500 nautical miles. 25 ˚ 8 ‘ (c) An aeroplane took off from A and flew due west to C along the common parallel latitude and then due south to D. if the average speed for the whole flight is 650 knots, calculate the time taken for the whole flight.

6820/650 = 10.49 hrs