HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Management of work force of an organisation ie how to manage the different people working together in a organisation. HRM is a management function that helps managers recruit, train and develop members for an organisation.
HRM is concerned with the people dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher level of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation are essential to achieving organisational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of organisation ie government, business, education, health.
Objectives of HRM
Societal objectives – To be socially responsible to the needs of the society.
. at least in so far as these goals enhance the individual‘s contribution to the organisation. Personal Objective – To assist employees in achieving their personal goals.
Functional objective – To maintain department‘s contribution at a level appropriate to the organisation‘s needs. Organisational Objective – To recognise the role of HRM in bringing about organisational effectiveness.
Selection 4. Legal compliance 2. HRP 2.
1. Employee relations 3. Placement
. Union Management relations
1.Objective of HRM
HRM Obj. Benefits 3. Appraisal 6. Training & Development 5.
Objectives of HRM
1. Placement 2. Assessment
1.Training & Development 2. Compensation
Competitive challenges and HR
3. 4. 5.
Going global Embracing new technology Managing change and organisation culture Responding to the market Containing costs
Downsizing Outsourcing and employee leasing Enhancing productivity
Other challenges faced
Demographic and Employee concerns
Demographic changes Diversity of backgrounds Age distributions Gender distribution Rising level of education
Concern for employee rights Changing attitude towards work Balancing work and family
Functions of HR
MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS Planning Organising Directing Controlling OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS Staffing Development Compensation Motivation
Training and development. Incentives and benefits
COMPENSATION & MOTIVATION
. Work scheduling. Selection. 360 degree feedback Job design. Career management. Placement. Compensation administration. Internal Mobility Competency profiling. Job evaluation. HRP. Induction.Operative functions of HR
Job analysis. Performance & potential management. Recruitment.
Trade unions. Discipline. Welfare
Employment relations. Safety. Participation
Health.Operative functions of HR (contd. Grievance.
Transfer. Welfare aspect – Housing. Grievance handling etc. education etc.Scope of HRM
Labour or Personnel aspect – Recruitment. Promotion etc. Health and Safety.
. Lunch room. Selection. Transport. Industrial relation aspect – Union Management relations. Negotiation.
HRM Environment .External
Social & cultural
Political & legal
HRM Environment .Internal
Policy – is predetermined course of action established to guide the performance of work towards accepted objectives. (3)Sence of Security (4)Control
. Importance -:
(1) Clear Thinking (2)Uniformity & Consistency of Admin.
Promotion etc.Types of HR Policies
Originated policies – Made by top Management.
. Imposed policies – Imposed by Govt & Legal authorities. Specific Policy – Related to specific issues like Recruitment. Transfer. (WPM). or if certain aspects are missing in the main policy. Appealed policies – Made on request to handle certain situation. may represent the priority of Top Mgmt. General policies – Do not relate any issue.
Strategy has two components -:
1) Planning 2) Action
. It usually includes the formulation of a goal and set of action plans for accomplishment of that goal.Strategic Management
Strategy -: is a way of doing something.
and evaluation and control are the phases in the strategic management process.Strategic Management
Strategic management is understood as the process of formulating. formulation of strategies. implementing and evaluating business strategies to achieve organisational objectives. Analysis of the environment.
Formulating and executing HR systems—HR policies and activities—that produce the employee competencies and behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic aims.
.Strategic Human Resource Management
The linking of HRM with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility.
.HR‘s Strategy Formulation Role
HR helps top management formulate strategy in a variety of ways by. Build a case that shows how—in specific and measurable terms—the firm‘s HR activities can contribute to creating value for the company. Supplying information regarding the company‘s internal human strengths and weaknesses.
Supplying competitive intelligence that may be useful in the strategic planning process.
Human Resource Planning
Meaning – Assessment of Human Resource Requirements & also the time & stages of requirement.
. Right person ---At Right place ---At Right time. Definition – HRP is defined as the process by which management determines how an org should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.
To asses the surplus and shortage of HR. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and HR.Objectives of HRP
To ensure optimum use of existing HR. (Downsizing). To forecast future requirement for HR.
. To provide control measures to ensure that necessary HR are available as and when required.
To determine the level of Recruitment and Training.Objectives of HRP – Contd. To estimate the cost of HR and Housing needs of employees. To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programmes. (Or HRA).
Importance of HRP
Future Personnel needs Creating highly talented personnel
International Strategies Foundation of personnel function
Resistance to change and move
Factors Affecting HRP
Organisational growth cycle & planning
Strategy of Organisation
Retrenchment. growth slows down. HRP is dominated by Layoffs.Factors Affecting HRP
Organisation growth cycle and planning-: HRP is Critical when organisation enters the growth stage.
. Mature organisations experiences less flexibility and variability. Retirements.
. It can result in Recruitment. Succession Planning. Retrenchment etc.Factors Affecting HRP
Environmental Uncertainties -: When Political. Social and other changes affect the organisation. Training. HR planners deal with uncertainties.
Factors Affecting HRP
Strategy of Organisation -:
Strategic plan of the organisation defines the organisation‘s HR needs.
Internal Growth Narrow Informal Reactive Inflexible
Growth through Mergers
Broad Formal Proactive Flexible
Outsourcing is the option left.
.Factors Affecting HRP
Outsourcing -: Most organisations have surplus labour and they do not want to worsen the problem by hiring more people.
Org objectives & policies
HR Need Forecast
HR Supply Forecast
Control & Evaluation
HRP Process (Contd.)
Environmental Scanning .: Economic factors Technological Changes Demographic changes Political and legislative issues Social concerns
this implies that the objectives of the HR plan must be derived from Org objectives.
.HRP Process (Contd.)
Org objectives and policies-: HR plans need to be based on org objectives.
The basis of forecast will be annual budget and long term corporate plans. laws.HRP Process (Contd. change in technology).
HR Demand forecast-: The process of estimating the future quantity and quality of people required. employee separations. Demand forecasting must consider several factors like internal (Budget constraints. production level) and external (Competition.
Demand forecasting techniques are-: Managerial judgment Ratio trend analysis Delphi technique Regression analysis HR Supply forecasting-:
Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an org.HRP Process (Contd.
. Succession plan etc.HRP Process (contd.
HR Plan Implementation-: Implementation requires converting an HR plans into action. Training.)
HR Programming-: Once the Org‘s HR Demand and Supply are forecast. the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employee at the right time.
Control and Evaluation -: Critical to have proper control and regular checks to know the achievements of HRP.HRP Process (contd. Lay off
. Surplus Shortage R&S
(SWOT of org.HRIS
HRIS is a database system that keeps important information about employees in a central and accessible location. The information provided by HRIS can help the organisation to gain competitive advantage.)
Information categories of HRIS
Basic non confidential information-: Employee name. tittles. Position related information (codes. Org name. effective date)
. Work location
General non confidential information -:
Social security number.
Info categories of HRIS (contd. Reason for last change. Confidential information with salary -: Information of previous category. Effective date.)
General information with salary -: Current salary. Amount of last change. Educational data
Extended information with salary -: Information of previous category.
. Projected salary increase information. Bonus information. Performance evaluation information.Info categories of HRIS (contd.
Such information helps in the preparation of job description and job specification. Job Analysis
Job analysis is the process of collecting job related information.
Job description -: A statement containing items such as Job title. Usually contains items such as Education. Communication skills etc. Job summary. Training. Job specification -: A Statement of human qualifications necessary to do the job. Working condition etc.
.Job Analysis (contd. Experience.
Purposes of Job Analysis
HRP Recruitment & Selection Training & Development Remuneration Safety & Health Performance Appraisal
Methods of Collecting Job Data
Observation Interviews Questionnaire Technical Conference Method
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview
Structured (Checklist) Unstructured
Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job Quick. direct way to find overlooked information. Distorted information
Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees
Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire
Structured checklists Opened-ended questions
.Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires Information source Advantages
Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their jobrelated duties and responsibilities.
Step 2: Review relevant background information.
Step 3: Select representative positions. Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification. Step 4: Actually analyze the job. Step 5: Verify the job analysis information.Steps in Job Analysis
Step 1: Decide how you‘ll use the information.
function). knowledge) for each job in a way that meets the need of the employees and the organisation. the rewards & the qualifications required (skills.
Job Design is defines as -: It integrates work content (tasks.
Job Design involves three steps -: Specification of individual tasks.
Specification of the methods of performing each tasks.
Combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals.
Methods of Job Design
Job Design Methods -:
Complete job is broken down into small subparts.
. This is done so that the employees can do these jobs without much specialized training.
and encouraging the employees not to limit themselves to what‘s on their job descriptions. Demographic changes Rise of a service economy.
External factors leading to dejobbing.Dejobbing
Broadening the responsibilities of the company‘s jobs. Rapid product and technological change Global competition Political instability.
Matching the worker‘s unique ―contributions‖ and assets with the needs of an employer.
Creating a job that fits the unique abilities of the worker.
The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. Recruitment is a positive process.Recruitment
The process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. Recruitment is a process of inviting applications from prospective employees. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.
Meet the organisation‘s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce.
Purpose & Importance of Recruitment
Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
Determine the present and future requirements of the organisation in relation with the HRP and Job Analysis.
Placement Agencies. External Sources-: Press Advertisements . Recruitment at factory Gate. Promotions. Employment Exchange.
. Educational Institutions.Sources of Recruitment
Internal Sources -: Transfer . Labour Contractors.
Recruiting Required Personnel Search for Perspective Employees
Internal Sources External Sources
Evaluating effectiveness of process
Locating and developing sources of required no and type of employees. time of appointment. info about job. Identifying the prospective employees with required characteristics. Contains info like no of person required. duties to be performed.
Personnel Requisition -: Requisition for recruitment from other deptt. desired qualification.
. the job and the terms and condition of service. Encouraging the identified candidates to apply for jobs in the org.)
Communicating the info about the org.Process (contd. Evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment process.
Alternatives to Recruitment
Overtime Employee Leasing
Selection is a negetive process.Selection
Selection is the process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organisation.
Preliminary Interview Application blank Selection Test Employment Interview Reference Check and Background Analysis Medical Examination Final Approval Evaluation
Test and Interview
Psychological tests -: Aptitude test
Informal Interview Formal Interview Depth Interview Stress Interview
.Induction Or Orientation
Planned introduction of employees to their jobs. their co – workers and the organisation. is designed to provide a new employee with the information he or she needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organisation.
Orientation also called Induction.
To develop among the newcomers a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organisation.Objectives of Induction
To help new comer overcome his natural shyness and nervousness in meeting new people in the environment.
. To develop a close and cordial relationship between newcomers and the old employees and their supervisor.
To give newcomers necessary information such as leave rules.
.Objectives (contd. rest period. locker room etc.)
To ensure that the newcomers do not form negative or false impression and attitude towards the organisation or the job because first impression is the last impression.
. Proper induction facilitates informal relations and teamwork among employees. Effective induction helps to integrate the new employees into the organisation and to develop the sense of belonging.Advantages of Formal Induction
Helps in build up a two way channel of communication between management and workers.
Types of Induction Programme
Formal Informal Individual collective
.Contents of Induction Programme
History and operation of company Products and services of company Policies and procedures of company Grievance procedure Benefit and services for employees Opportunities for training and development. transfer etc.
or demotion of present employees. transfer. It includes initial assignment of new employees and promotion.Placement
Placement refers to the allocation of people to jobs.
Independent Sequential Pooled
Difficulty with the placement is that we tend to look at the individual but not at the job.
Job in this context may be classified into three categories.
usually by changing the employee‘s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. (Employees)
.Training & Development
Training is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning.
Development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. (Executive) Education is theoretical learning in classroom.
The need for training and development is determined by the employee‘s performance deficiency computed as follows-:
Training & Development need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance
Job Experience. 4. Specific Task.
. 2. 3. Application base. Narrow Perspective. Classroom learning.Theoretical Orientation. 4.
Education -: 1. Broad Perspective. 2. 3. General Concepts.Difference between T & Edu
Training -: 1.
Inputs in T & D
Skills Education Development Ethics Attitudinal Changes Decision making and Problem solving skills
T & D as a source of Competitive Advantage
T & D offer competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies, making staff stay long, minimising accidents, Scrap & damage and meeting future employees needs.
Need Assessment Deriving Instructional Objectives Designing Training & Development Program Implementation of Training Program Evaluation
Need Assessment -: Diagnoses the present problems & future challenges to be met through training and development. Need Assessment Methods -: As follows Group Assessment – (intro of new product.) Org goals & objectives. Personnel skill inventories Exit interviews Customers Satisfaction data
1. 2. 3. 4.
Needs Assessment & Remedial measures
Lack of Skill & Knowledge
Non – Training Measures
4. Issues in need assessment -: Org Support Org Analysis Task and KSA analysis Person Analysis
2. 1.Training process
Individual Analysis -: Performance Appraisal Interviews Questionnaires Attitude Surveys. 4.
Designing training & development program -: 1.Training Process
Deriving an instructional objectives -: It help to know the inputs for the training program and as well as for the measures of success that would help assess effectiveness of the training program. Where to conduct the program?
. Methods & techniques? 4. Who are the trainers? 3. Level of training? 5. Learning principles? 6. Who are the trainees? 2.
Implementation of training program Evaluation
Doctors Job rotation .
On the job -: Orientation Training ie Induction Job instruction – Info about how to conduct the job. 2.Bank Coaching – Cricket team
. 6.ITI Internship / Assistantship .Types of training
1. Apprentice training .
2. Role playing – is to create realistic situation. Simulation – technique that duplicates as nearly as possible actual condition encountered on the job.
4. Provides awareness about their own behaviour & how other percieve them.
3. Laboratory / Sensitivity training – smaller group ie 12 or less. Lecture – Verbal presentation of information.Types of training
Off the job -: Vestibule – Utilisation of actual equipments.
It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.
To asses the training and development needs of employees.
.Objectives of Performance Appraisal
Promotions based on competence and performance. To confirm the services of probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily.
performance Appraisal can be used to determine whether HR programmes such as selection. Finally.Objective of Performance Appraisal
To decide upon pay rise where regular pay scales have not been fixed.
. training and transfers have been effective or not.
Performance Standards – Translate job requirements into levels of acceptable or unacceptable performance.Relationship of PA and Job Analysis
Job Analysis – Describe work and Personnel requirement of a particular job. Performance Appraisal – Describes the job relevant strengths and weaknesses of each individual.
PA and Competitive Advantage
Improving Performance Making Correct decisions
Minimizing job dissatisfaction and turn over
Consistency between organizational strategy
Performance Appraisal process
Objective of Performance Appraisal
Establish Job expectations
Design an Appraisal Programme Appraise Performance
Use Appraisal Data for Appropriate Purposes
Who are Raters.P A Process
Objective – Correct or Improve performance Expectation – In forming what is expected from employee Design Appraisal – Helps in posing question which needs answers like Formal v/s Informal Appraisal. individual). What Methods to be opted. Time. Quantity. whose performance should be rated (group. When to Evaluate. team.
. Need For Supervision). Cost effectiveness. What should be rated (Quality.
Performance Interview Use the Appraisal Data – HRP.
. Quality and time of Output.P A Process
Appraise the Performance – Quantity. Training and Development etc. Promotion. Remuneration.
Clients and Self 720 Degree .Performance Appraisal Methods
90 Degree – Only Supervisor is Evaluator. Clients and Self 540 Degree .Superior. Peer. Peer and Subordinates 360 Degree – Superior.Superior. Peer. Subordinates. Clients. Peer. Subordinates. Self and Family
. Subordinates. 180 Degree – Superior and Peer Group 270 degree – Superior.
Critical Incident Method – this approach focuses on certain critical behaviours of an employee
.Work hard.: Rating Scales – Excellent-Good-AcceptableFair-Poor (Simplest & most popular) Checklist – Yes / No (Is employee interested in job? Does have adequate qualification?) Forced Choice Method – Two Choices and no other option (The rater is forced to select statements which are readymade) Learns fast ----.Performance Appraisal Methods
Past Oriented Methods .
Field Review Method – Some one outside the assessee‘s own department.Performance Appraisal Methods
Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales – On the basis of the behavioural criteria of the employee rating is being done by the superior. usually from corporate office or HR department.
Future Oriented Methods
360 Degree Appraisal Assessment Centers (Potential Appraisal) Psychological Counseling
Problems in Performance Appraisal
Leniency or Severity Central Tendency Halo Error Rater Effect – Rating based on raters attitude towards ratee Primacy or Recency effects Perceptual Set – Raters perception
Job evaluation seeks to determine the relative worth of each job so that salary differentials can be established.
In job evaluation only jobs are rated unlike in performance appraisal where only job holders are rated.
Job Evaluation Process
Objectives of Job Evaluation
Job Description Job Specification
Job Evaluation Programme
Methods of Job Evaluation
Non Analytical Methods Analytical Methods
. if the later is available.Non Analytical method
Ranking Method – The evaluation committee assesses the worth of each job on the basis of its title or on its contents. Job Grading Method – There is a yardstick in the form of job classes or grades.
Remuneration is the compensation an employee receives in return for his or her contribution to the organisation. Society – Some people see pay as a measure of justice. as linking executive pay to company performance is supposed to increase stockholders wealth. executive pay is of special interest. Stockholders – To stockholders.
First. In addition to treating it as an expense. Employees – The pay individuals receive in return for the work they perform is usually the major source of their financial security.
. a manager also uses it to influence employee behaviour and improve organisation performance.Compensation
Managers – Compensation influences their success in two ways. it is a major expense.
Financial – : Hourly and monthly rated wage and salary. Group Insurance. 2.
4. Gratuity.Components of Compensation
1. Incentives ie individual plans and group plans. 3. Medical care. furnished house (Offered to retain competent executives)
. Perquisites are Company car. Fringe benefits ie PF .
.Components of Compensation
Non Financial -: Recognition. Growth Prospects.
Going Rate Cost of Living – Escalatory clause Labour Unions Labour Laws – Payment of wages act1936. 3. 4.
5. Payment of Bonus act 1965. Society
Factors Influencing Employee Remuneration
. 1. 2. Payment of gratuity act 1972. Equal remuneration act 1976.
External -: Labour Market – Demand & Supply. Minimum wages act 1948.
. 2. Seniority
1. Experience.Factors Influences Employee Remuneration
Internal -: Business Strategy – Rapid growth = High Pay Job Evaluation and Performance Appraisal Employee – Performance .
Devising a Remuneration Plan
Job Description Job Evaluation
Job Hierarchy Pay Survey
Challenges of Remuneration
Salary reviews Pay secrecy Skill based pay Employee Participation Above Market or Below Market Rates Monetary V/S Non Monetary Rewards Comparable Worth
Provides for bare essentials plus frugal comforts.Concept of Wages
Minimum Wage – Wage for sustenance of life plus for preservation of the efficiency of worker. Living Wage – Higher than fair wage. (Determined through Legislation) Fair Wage – Equal to the rate prevailing in the same trade and in the neighborhood or equal to the predominant rate for similar work throughout the country.
Incentives are variable rewards granted to employees according to variations in their performance. But the word ‗Incentives‘ is most appropriate because of its motivational content. The other name for incentives is ―Payments by results‖.
reduced lost time. Earning of employees would be enhanced due to incentives. better utilisation of equipments.
.Importance of Incentives
Motivation of worker for higher efficiency and greater output. reduced absenteeism and turnover and increased output. Increased earning helps employee to improve standard of living. Other advantages – Reduced Supervision.
When job is restudied there are chances that it may yield in lower earning in terms of earning incentives as new and high challenging jobs offers more scope for earning as compared to old jobs. Increases jealousy among the workers as the person earning less is jealous of the person earning more.Disadvantages of Incentives
Deteriorate the quality of product as employee want to earn more by producing more quantity of products.
Employee benefits and services include any benefits that the employee receives in addition to direct remuneration. Employee benefits and services are alternatively known as fringes or hidden payroll.
Types of employee benefits
For fringe benefits three criteria‘s are needed to be fulfilled. It should be computable in terms of money. The amount of benefit is not generally predetermined. No contract, indicating when the sum is payable, should exists.
Legally required payments -: Old age, survivors, disability and health insurance. Contingent benefits -: pension plans, group life insurance, group health insurance, maternity leave, sick leave, service awards. Other benefits -: payments for the time not worked like holidays, leaves.
Benefits and services
Treats -: free lunches, festival bashes, dinner for the family. Awards -: trophies, certificates, letter of appreciation. Office environment -: flexible hours. Tokens -: movie tickets, vacation trips. On the job -: job rotation, representing the company at public meetings.
Administration of fringe benefits
Establish benefits objectives Assess environmental factors
Access competitiveness Communicate benefit information
Control benefit cost and evaluation
Components of remuneration -: Salary Bonus Commission Long term incentives Perks
to protect the interest of the employed and their employers. rules and procedures used by unions and employers to determine the reward for effort and their conditions of employment.
. and to regulate the ways in which employers treat their employees.Industrial Relations
IR is concerned with the system .
Machinery for resolution of industrial dispute Individual grievance and disciplinary policy and practice
1) 2) 3) 4)
. unions and govt. IR specially covers the following areas-: Collective bargaining Role of management .IR cont‘d
IR is concerned with the relationship between management and workers and the role of regulatory mechanism in resolving any industrial dispute.
(c) Stability in IR is a product of concession and compromises between management and unions.
. Pluralistic Approach – (a) org as coalitions of competing interest. where the management‘s role is to mediate amongst the different interest group. (b) TU are legitimate representatives of employee interest. Tribunals. and unions are not sought.Approaches to IR
Unitary Approach – Direct negotiation with employee and participation of Govt.
Approaches to IR
Marxist Approach – same as Pluralistic but feels conflict arises not because of rift between management and workers, but because of the division in the society between those who own resources and who have only labour to offer.
Parties to IR
Employees Employee Associations Government
Employer – Employee – Relations Employers Employer Associations Courts and Tribunals
TU are voluntary organisations of employees or employers formed to promote and protect their interest through collective action. Though the terms employees and employers are used, when we say trade unions they generally refer to employees.
Why do employees join unions?
Dissatisfaction Lack of power Union Instrumentality
Unions employ several tactics to deal with management are-: Strike Invoking political patronage Blackmailing Unionising
managers must decide what type of union mgmt relations they want.
. If unionisation should be allowed. If mgmt decide company should remain union free then they must take steps to keep union away from the org. Mgmt must also choose the type of tactic to use while negotiating a new wage settlement.Strategic choices before Management
Mgmt must decide whether the org should remain union free or allow unionisation.
Strategic choices before Unions
Bread and Butter V/S Political objective Adversarial V/S Co operative role Traditional issues V/S New services
Strategies and Tactics for remaining Union .Free
Effective supervision Open communication Effective personnel search Healthy and Safe working environment Effective Employer and Employee relations Effective remmuneration
Some of the major Trade Unions
INTUC – Indian National Trade Union Congress CITU – Centre of Indian Trade Unions HMS – Hind Mazdoor Sabha AITUC – All India Trade Union Congress BMS – Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh UTUC – United Trade Union Congress
. workmen and workmen. industrial dispute mean any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workmen.Disputes and Their Resolution
Acc to Industrial Dispute Act. 1947. which is connected with the employment or non employment or terms of employment.
12 million tones) Political Interference (ideology differs. CITUCommunist love to fight but hate to win so they have not signed any settlement in last 15 years)
.Causes of Disputes
Wage Demands Union Rivalry (Singareni Collieries . union works on party lines.445 TU – loss 3.
Negotiation of settlement of dispute the representatives of employers take the side of management which results in disputes. Multiplicity of Labour Laws
.Causes of Disputes
Unfair Labour Practice .: Management unwillingness to recognise a particular TU and dilatory tactics.
Settlement of Disputes
a) b) c) d) e) f)
Collective Bargaining (reps of employees & employers meet to solve the issue) Collective Bargaining Process-: Preparing for negotiation Identifying bargaining issues Negotiations Reaching the agreement Ratifying the agreement Administration of agreement
Collective Bargaining takes place when representatives of trade union meet management representatives to determine employee wages and benefits and to solve other issues. Collective Bargaining is the most effective method of resolving industrial disputes.Settlement Cont‘d.
Settlement of Disputes
Grievance Procedure Arbitration Conciliation Adjudication Consultative Machinery
Grievance Procedure -: Stage One (Sectional Head) 5 days
Stage two (Deptt Head) 5 days Stage Three (Divisional Head) 10 days
Fourth Stage (Union)
and make recommendations which are binding on both the parties.Settlement Cont‘d
Arbitrations refers to the procedure in which a neutral third party studies the dispute. says that the govt shall appoint conciliation officers and their main duty is to mediate and promote settlement of Industrial Dispute.
. listen to both the parties and collects the information . Conciliation -: As per the Industrial Dispute act 1947. Sec 4.
Adjudication a mandatory settlement of Industrial Dispute by a labour court or Tribunal.
.Safety and Health
There is a saying
― Precaution is always better than cure‖.
Safety and Health
Bhopal Gas Tragedy 23 years ago.
. Survivors still suffer from various diseases and battling for life and waiting for their turn to get compensated. there was a gas leak from a Union Carbide plant which led to killing over 20000 thousands of people in Bhopal and become the worst industrial accident in India due to negligence of proper safety features.
Safety and Health
Major Accident in last decade (India)-: 1) Bhopal gas leak in December 1984. 5) Mumbai ONGC‘s helicopter crash in the offshore Heera Panna oilfield‘s Neelam area in August 2003. 3) Gwalior blast at a dyeing department of GRASIM in December 1991. 4) Khalgaon boiler explosion in NTPC in October 1992.
. 2) Delhi gas leak from Sriram foods and fertilizers in December 1985.
Wing damage sustained during launch by a chunk of fuel tank insulation was cited as the accident cause. 2003.Safety and Health
Major International accident-:
1) NASA – Columbia space shuttle broke apart during reentry on Feb 1.
someone dies as a result of an industrial accident‖. Stated differently. Research says ― Every twenty seconds of working minute of every hour throughout the World.
. safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of accidents.Safety and Health
Safety -: refers to the absence of accidents.
Safety and Health
Types of accidents -: Accidents Internal
Safety and Health
Major – Accidents results in death or results in prolonged injury.
. Minor – A scratch or injury does not seriously disable. Temporary – If a person recovers disability from which he can recover fully after certain period. External – wounds which are seen through our open eyes.Safety and Health
Internal – If a bone is fracture which cant be seen and judged from open eyes.
Safety and Health
Permanent – Any injury which permanently disabled the person.
Safety and Health
Need for safety -: Cost saving – Direct cost ie compensation and Indirect cost ie loss of production.
. employees feel safe and produce good quality and quantity. wastage of time. Increased productivity – Safety promotes productivity. damages of equipment.
Safety and Health
3) Moral – Providing safety to the employee has moral dimension. Can monetary compensation be a substitute for person?
. Monetary compensation does not bring the person back as a healthy individual. in addition to being a legal requirement. An employer has no right to cause accident to an employee which might kill the person.
.Safety and Health
4) Legal – Supreme court says ― An enterprise which is engaged in a hazardous dangerously industry which poses a potential threat to the health and safety of the persons working in the factory or industry must ensure that neither the workers nor the society suffers any kind of damages‖ . All safety related requirements to be fulfilled by the industry as legal requirement before start of work.
inadequate supervision. which are usually falls in the management system arising from poor leadership from top.
.Safety and Health
Safety Program -: Safety program deals with the prevention of accidents and with minimising the resulting loss and damage to person and property. So these factors have to be traced to their root causes. no attention to design safety system. Five principles that govern the safety program of an organisation are -: 1) Industrial accidents are a the result of multiple factors.
.Safety and Health
2) The most important function of safety programmes is to identify potential hazards. provide effective remedial actions. b) Adequate accidents records. This is possible only if there are -: a) Effective system for reporting all accidents causing damage or injury. d) Methods of ensuring that safety equipment is maintained. inspections. c) Systematic procedures for carrying out safety checks.
.Safety and Health
3) Safety policy of the organisation should be determined by the top management and it must continuously involved in monitoring safety performance. 4) The management and supervision must be made fully accountable for safety performance in the working areas they control. 5) All employees should be given thorough training in safe methods of work and they should get regular guidance on eleminating safety hazards.
Safety and Health
Safety Process -: Strategic choices development of safety policy Organisation for safety Analysis of causes of accidents
Implementation of program
Evaluation of effectiveness
Informal are enforced because of pressure and include good training. Must decide whether a safety program will be formal or informal. Formal have written regulation & carefully monitored. Some co because of financial constraints prefer low level.Safety and Health
Strategic choices – Management must make decision regarding safety of their workers.
. Some strategic choices are-: Must determine the level of protection.
4) Management can use safety of workers as a marketing tool of the organisation.
.Safety and Health
3) Management can be proactive or reactive.
Safety and Health
Health .: The well being of the employees in an industrial establishment is affected by accidents and by ill health – physical as well as mental. Health in Industry can be discussed through following angles-: Physical health Mental health Noise control Stress management Violence at work place
smokes Leukemia Radiation Reproductive problems Radiation Vision Chemical fumes. Office equip. Hearing High noise level
.Safety and Health
Health hazards -: Health hazards
Lung cancer oven emissions.
Three reasons for this development are mental breakdowns because of pressure & tensions. Mental disturbances because of reduced productivity & lower profits. Mental illness alcoholism & poor human relations.Safety and Health
Mental health -: Specially at executive cadre.
Constant exposure to noise not only effects hearing ability but also effect the general health of the employees.Safety and Health
Noise Control -: Noise can only be minimised but can not be totally eliminated.
When stress brings out something better from an individual. it is called eustress. Stress is mostly understood to be negative.Safety and Health
Work stress -: refers to an individuals response to a disturbing factor in the environment . but it has positive dimension also. Violence at work place -: