UTILIZING ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN FACILITATING TRAINING

Marion I. Alinas Community Vocational High School Masipit, Calapan City

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Safety Handling of Electronics Equipment The Video Camera Recorder Operate a Video Camera Recorder Tips and Tricks in Video Shooting The LCD/LDP Projector The Common Parts and Controls of an LCD/LDP Projector • Connect Video Camera Recorder to LCD/LDP Projector • Techniques in Demonstrating in Front of Video Camera

General Safety Procedure 1. Read user’s manual before using the equipment. 2. Keep the user’s manual for future reference. 3. Follow all instruction as stated in the manual. 4. Install all equipment in accordance to manufacturer’s manual 5. Clean all equipment with dry cloth.

Do not let object or liquids enter to the equipment. 7.6. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Only use attachment/accessories specified by the manufacturer. 8. . See equipment enclosure for safety related markings. 9.

Handling Video Camera Recorders .

Handling Battery Packs .

Handling LCD Projectors .

Video Player .

Personal Computers .

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. facial recognition.. Image Stabilisation..DSLR.. Live View. What does it all mean? (and why does it matter to me?) 2006-06-01 ... Sensors... Megapixels. Dust Reduction..

Digital SLR 2006-06-01 .Prosumer* .Types of Digital Cameras 3 Main classifications .Point and Shoot .

compact and lightweight .Point and Shoot digital Cameras (P&S) .Typically very User-Friendly . .Targeted at broad majority .Image Quality has improved drastically 2006-06-01 .Represent probably 90% of all digital cameras on the market .Commonly referred to as “consumer” digital cameras.Typically small.

Typically combine user friendly P&S features with more advanced manual features.Prosumer Digital Cameras -Not technically its own specification .Common term used to describe advanced models of P&S (now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's) .Typically have extended zoom range (8-12X Optical Equiv) .Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's . 2006-06-01 .

Have larger sensors.Ability to interchange system lenses 2006-06-01 . lacking many automatic settings found on P&S .Tend to favor manual control.Much larger and heavier . resulting in greater image quality .Digital SLR (DSLR) SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex .

So What is the REAL difference between a digital SLR and a point and shoot camera? 2006-06-01 .

....Image Quality But Why? How can a 6 megapixel DSLR take a better picture than a 10 megapixel point and shoot? Because Size Matters! 2006-06-01 .The short answer is.

Essentially. .How the digital sensor works . known as pixels. an image is recorded by tiny microlenses (pixels) which make up the cameras sensor 2006-06-01 .Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares.

All Pixels are not created equal! -A digital sensor is essentially made up of millions of tiny micro-lenses (pixels) . which are much better and collecting this data 2006-06-01 .Larger Sensors contain larger pixels.Pixels are analog devices which record light and color data .

Digital Sensors Compared 2006-06-01 .

Full-Frame versus APS-C Sized Sensors 2006-06-01 .

Digital Image dimensions do not equal print dimensions .For example a full quality image from an 8 megapixel camera will produce a digital image measuring approximately 9X14 inches but printing standards say that you should not print to “Photo Quality” any larger than 8X10 2006-06-01 .More MP does not always mean a better picture .Digital Camera Features and Technologies Megapixels – Determine the total size (Dimensions) of the image recorded by camera .

Megapixels Vs. Print Size .

in order to reduce the blur caused by camera shake. Very Useful in low-light or telephoto situations .Movement Compensation Refers to the cameras ability to correct small movements by the user while taking a picture.

Movement Compensation Represented differently by different companies: Nikon – VR – Vibration Reduction Canon – IS – Image Stabilization Pentax – SR – Shake Reduction Sony – SSS – Super Steady-Shot .

Dust Reduction Dust is more of a problem in DSLR's due to changing lenses Once dust gets on your sensor. it can be difficult to remove Dust reduction is essentially a mechanism which shakes the cameras sensor to free any clinging dust particles Special anti-static coatings or filters may also be used .

Live View • Refers to the ability to use the lcd screen on the camera the same way you would use the viewfinder • Shots can be composed even while holding the camera away from your face • Originally only a feature in P&S. DSLR’s now use Live View also .

etc. contrast change. • Focus is automatically adjusted so detail in faces is high • Color and contrast are automatically adjusted to create pleasing skin tones .Facial Recognition • Camera detects faces in your frame based on color.

and good to one person may not be good to someone else. it is still a relative term. .Getting a “Good” shot While there are hundreds of factors which can make a photo “good”. For our purposes we will refer to good in the sense of a correct exposure.

How much of a range in which you can capture detail from light to dark is referred to as the Dynamic Range.Exposure A “correct” or “good” exposure occurs when you maintain as much detail as possible in both the very bright parts (highlights) as well as the very dark parts (shadows) of an image. there can be many “correct” or “good” exposures There are three factors which influence the exposure of your image: -Shutter Speed -Aperture -ISO . As you are about to see.

Shutter Speed Refers to how long the shutter is open. (how long the camera “sees” the picture) Measured in Seconds. from 30 down to 1/8000 . exposing the image sensor to light.

Shutter Speed Fast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject. .

Shutter Speed Slow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speed .

Shutter Speed Very Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light situations to obtain correct exposure. or achieve dramatic effects. .

.Shutter Speed Beware! As your shutter speed decreases. your chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the camera steady for a longer period.

Inside the camera lens is a system of blades which open and close to increase or decrease the opening through which light passes into the camera .Aperture An aperture is defined as a hole or opening through which light is admitted.

A large aperture of 2.0. a small aperture of 22) The wider the lens is open(larger aperture value). aperture is usually represented by: f/1. or f/5.Aperture Often refferred to as an f-stop. the more light gets in (you can use faster shutter speeds) .6 A Smaller # means a wider opening and is referred to as a larger value (eg.8.

Aperture .

A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate a subject.Depth of Field Aperture also controls depth of field (DOF). which refers to how much of your image is in focus. .

Depth of Field .

meaning it will take LESS LIGHT to get the right exposure Similar to Film Speeds in 35mm format .ISO Refers to the light sensitivity of the sensor HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE sensitive to light.

which creates digital “noise” in images.ISO Typically ranges from 100-1600 Newer Digital cameras have a higher range (up to 64000) Using High ISO values causes the sensor to produce much more heat. .

ISO Noise is similar to film grain and causes loss of fine detail in images It is more visible in dark parts of an image and is generally more noticeable when displayed on screen than in print .

ISO Some cameras claim to have “Digital Image Stabilization” This just means that the camera will automatically increase the ISO in order to allow a faster shutter speed Faster Shutter Speed will reduce the likelihood of camera shake. but high ISO will most likely result in a grainy image. .

which cannot usually be noticed with the naked eye. White Balance is essentially the camera compensating for the color cast of the light in order to reproduce the “correct” colors . just the appearance of colors in the image Different light sources cast their own colors.The fourth Element White Balance White balance doesn't really affect your exposure.

White Balance

The color cast of light is referred to as its Color Temperature and is rated in degrees Kelvin Ranges from “Cool” to “Warm” Most Digital cameras have Automatic White Balance, but also specific options for different sources of light.

Basic In-Camera Settings
Exposure Modes There are several modes available which offer a combination of automatic and manual control over the three elements of exposure. Auto, sometimes represented by an A, or simply a green square, is fully automatic functioning. True “point and shoot” where the camera decides all the settings for you

Basic In-Camera Settings
Av or Aperture Priority allows you to choose the aperture value while the camera chooses the shutter speed required to obtain a correct exposure Tv or Shutter Priority allows you to choose the shutter speed while the camera chooses the aperture which would produce the correct exposure M or Manual gives you complete manual control. You choose both shutter speed and aperture

Basic In-Camera Settings Scene Modes Scene Modes are basically fully automatic modes designed specifically for a certain situation. Most digital cameras have very similar scene modes available . They typically place emphasis on one or more settings based on the typical circumstances of the situation chosen.

Scene Modes Backlight . Beach/Snow . or when the subject is in the shade. snow and sunlit water scenes.ds. .eliminates dark shadows when light is coming from behind a subject. The built-in flash automatically fires to "fill in" the shadows.photograph beach. Exposure and white balance are set to help prevent the scene from becoming washed out looking. Use of tripod recommended.

take photos of wide scenes. Landscape . . Camera automatically focuses on a distant object.take close-up shots of small objects. Hold the camera steady or use a tripod. Lens can be moved closer to the subject than in other modes. flowers and insects.Scene Modes Fireworks . Macro .shutter speed and exposure are set for shooting fireworks. pre-focusing & use of tripod recommended.

shutter-speeds are low.Scene Modes Night Portrait . The built-in flash and red-eye reduction are enabled.photograph nightscapes. Use of tripod recommended. Preprogrammed to use slow shutter speeds. Use of tripod recommended. Night Scene .take photos of a subject against a night scene. .

Captures indoor background lighting or candlelight. exposure and shutter speed are automatically adjusted for room brightness.Scene Modes Party . Hold the camera very steady when using this mode. .take photos in a dim lit room.

.main subject is clearly focused and the background is out of focus (has less depth of field). stand close to your subject within the recommended camera range and. Best when taking shots outside during the day. select an uncomplicated background that is far from the subject.Scene Modes Portrait . when possible. Shoot using a mid to long telephoto lens.

fast shutter speeds "freeze" the action. Sunset .Scene Modes Sports (also called Kids & Pets). helps keep the deep hues in the scene.take photos of a fast moving subject.take photos of sunsets and sunrises. prefocusing recommended. Best when shots are taken in bright light. .

. by changing the metering mode you are telling the camera to evaluate the scene in a different way. Essentially. Many cameras have more than one metering mode and each evaluates a scene in a different way.Metering Modes The metering system within a camera measures the amount of light in a frame and determines the best exposure.

. Center-weighted is the metering system of choice on digicams that do not offer other metering modes. Exposure metering is averaged over the entire frame with emphasis placed on the central area.Metering Modes Center-weighted metering Currently the most common digital camera metering system. Used for general and portrait photography.

Metering Modes Matrix (evaluative) metering A complex metering system whereby a scene is split up into a series of zones. . Overall exposure is based on evaluating each zone individually and taking an average of the total light readings.

.Metering Modes Spot metering Spot metering covers just under 4 percent of the viewfinder area. A spot meter is used when a subject is backlit or has bright light upon it and the background is dark -for example. when there are extremes in brightness in a scene. It takes a precise exposure reading only at the very center of the frame and disregards the rest.

about 13.5 percent. Both spot and partial metering are considered advanced settings. They give the skilled photographer more control over exposure than do matrix and centerweighted metering. . It is useful for taking portrait photos when the subject is back lit Underexposure is minimized by metering on the face.Metering Modes Partial metering Partial metering is similar to spot metering but covers a larger area of the viewfinder.

2. .The Basic Camera Moves 1.Tilt Moving the cameras lens up or down while keeping its horizontal axis constant.this is tilting. Look to your left. Zoom: It involves changing the focal length of the lens to make the subject appear closer or further away in the frame. 3. Pan: Moving the camera lens to one side or another. Nod your head up and down .that's panning. then look to your right .

Shot Types **Shots are usually described in relation to a particular subject. EWS (Extreme Wide Shot) .

VWS (Very Wide Shot) .

WS (Wide Shot) .

MS (Mid Shot) .

MCU (Medium Close Up) .

CU (Close Up) .

.Cut-In .

CA (Cutaway) .

Two-Shot .

(OSS) Over-the-Shoulder Shot

Noddy Shot

Point-of-View Shot (POV)

Weather Shot .

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makes a photo more naturally attractive to the viewer. . and especially on or near the intersecting points.Composition:The Rule of Thirds • Imagine the frame divided into three equal sections both horizontally and vertically • Divided into “thirds” • The Concept is: Placing your subject or elements along any of these lines.

The Rule of Thirds .

Rule of Thirds Illustrated .

Rule of Thirds Illustrated .

or near intersecting points • For portraits. and naturally draw attention to the eyes. the eyes are often positioned along one of the horizontal lines preferably near one of the power points to make the photograph more pleasing to look at.Rule of Thirds • Again. the concept is simple: Place subjects along the lines. • For landscapes the horizon is aligned to any of the horizontal lines depending on how much land/water/sky you want to show. .

Post Processing and Image Management • • • • Picasa Free to download Distributed by Google Simple. User friendly functions and interface .

DLP and LCD Projector • DLP (Digital Light Processing) • LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) .

.DLP (Digital Light Processing) • Digital Light Processing™ is the world's only all-digital display solution. or DMD chip to recreate source material. known as the Digital Micro Mirror Device. DLP™ technology uses an optical semiconductor.

Advantages of DLP • Less 'chicken wire' (or 'screen door') effect because pixels are much closer together. DLP projectors are generally more portable as fewer components are required • • • . Higher contrast achievable. This doesn't make so much difference with data. DLP has sealed optics which makes them better for use in a dusty environment. but it produces smoother images for video.

caused by stray light being bounced off the edges of the tiny mirrors on the DLP chip. or you can create it for yourself by moving your eyes very quickly across the screen. or when looking away from the projected image to an offscreen object. Basically it's a grey band around the outside of the image.the old ones had four segments on the colour wheel. the new ones have six or even seven and spin faster. Only some people see this effect. There are two types of DLP projector . • The 'halo' effect (or 'light leakage'). However the halo effect is less evident in the newer DLP chips such as the DDR chip . so the halo falls on to the border. appearing as a momentary flash of rainbow-like striping typically trailing the bright objects when looking from one side of the screen to the other. It may bother some people using their projector for home cinema. It can be a distraction. which means less rainbow effect and more saturated colour.Disadvantages of DLP • The 'rainbow' effect. but can be overcome by having a black border a few inches wide around the screen.

This activity modulates the light and produces the image that is projected onto the screen. green. and blue components of the image signal being transfer to the projector. . individual pixels can be opened to allow light to pass or closed to block the light.LCD (liquid crystal display) • Contain three separate LCD glass panels. one for red. As the light passes through the LCD panels.

compared to non-3LCD projectors. Hence. with a data signal.even in a bright room. This can actually be a bit of a disadvantage for video. and you get more than double the brightness on color luminance. the same wattage lamp in both an LCD and DLP would produce a brighter image through the LCD). more precisely focused). With 3LCD projectors. if you put a 1000 lumen LCD next to a 1200 lumen DLP and showed a colour image people would probably prefer the LCD for brightness. 3LCD projectors can project bright. where it makes the pixellation more obvious • • • . vivid images with a low output lamp. What’s more. LCD tends to produce a sharper image (ie. you get beautiful color in clear. defined images .Advantages of LCD • LCD is generally more 'light efficient' than DLP (ie.

LCD panels can fail. • . DLP chips can also fail but as there are fewer parts in a DLP projector this is relatively rare. if the projector develops multiple dead pixels it can be an irritation. Though with the recent advancements in 3LCD technology this is now barely noticeable. while this is barely noticeable with one dead pixel. 'Dead Pixels' . and are very expensive to replace. as there are more internal components. Generally more bulky.Pixels can become permanently on or permanently off.Disadvantages of LCD • • • • Chicken wire effect causing the image to look more pixellated.

Common Parts and Controls of LCD/DLP Projector 1. 8. 6. 4. 5. Control Panel Zoom lever Focus Ring Power Socket Zoom Lens Elevator Foot Elevator Button Infrared Receiver . 3. 7. 2.

Tilt Adjusting Feet Connection Ports .

Control Buttons 1. 7. Power standby Button Source Button Menu Keystone Button Four directional Select Key Enter Button Re-sync 6. 5. 2. . 4. 3.

• Thank You! .