Microbiology

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Gastroenteritis is a catchall term for infection or irritation of the digestive tract, particularly the stomach and intestine The most common cause of gastroenteritis is viral infection. Viruses such as rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, and calicivirus and small round-structured viruses Gastroenteritis typically lasts about three days. Adults usually recover without problem, but children, the elderly, and anyone with an underlying disease are more vulnerable to complications such asdehydration.

 Nausea

 Vomiting
 Diarrhea  Abdominal

Cramps

   Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by watery diarrhea that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera often occurs in outbreaks or epidemics. first identified by Robert Koch in 1883 during a cholera outbreak in Egypt.“ Cholera is spread by eating food or drinking water. . The name of the disease comes from a Greek word meaning "flow of bile.

    Because V. But some will survive to infect the intestines. most die in the acidic environment of the stomach. . cholerae is sensitive to acid. So antacid usage or the use of any medication that blocks acid production in the stomach would allow more bacteria to survive and cause infection. Vomiting may also occur. Then the bacteria produce a toxin that causes a large volume of water and electrolytes to be secreted into the bowels and then to be abruptly eliminated in the form of watery diarrhea.

         Symptoms begin to appear between one and three days after the contaminated food or water has been ingested. intense thirst little or no urine output dry skin and mouth an absence of tears glassy or sunken eyes muscle cramps Weakness rapid heart rate .

. replacement fluids must be given intravenously. The discovery that rehydration can be accomplished orally revolutionized the treatment of cholera and other. In cases of severe dehydration. cost-effective treatment widely available throughout the world. similar diseases by making this simple.  The key to treating cholera lies in preventing dehydration by replacing the fluids and electrolytes lost through diarrhea and vomiting.

Lower Digestive System infections .

a Japanese researcher. who discovered the organism in 1897. Shigellosis is an infection of the intestinal tract by a group of bacteria called Shigella. and ingestion of just 10 organisms is enough to affect a person.  . The bacteria is named in honor of Shiga. Shigella are extremely infectious bacteria.

Shigella also produce a number of toxins (Shiga toxin and others) that increase the amount of fluid secretion by the intestinal tract. which can bleed. Shigella infection spreads through food or water contaminated by human waste. The result is a colitis that produces multiple ulcers. This fluid secretion is a major cause of the diarrhea symptoms. Shigella are very resistant to the acid produced by the stomach. and this allows them to easily pass through the gastrointestinal tract and infect the colon (large intestine).   .

 contaminated milk. ice cream. directly or indirectly . vegetables and other foods which often cause epidemics household contacts (40% of adults and 20% of children will develop infection from such a source)    poor hygiene and overcrowded living conditions sexual practices which lead to oral-anal contact.

   Mild diarrhea / Dysentery Dehydration Vomiting  Fever .

  Many cases resolve before the diagnosis is established by culture. except for the more severe infections. Antibiotics may not be necessary. . The first aim of treatment is to keep up nutrition and avoid dehydration.

Lower Digestive System Infections .

 Infection with bacteria of the genus Salmonella. characterized by gastroenteritis and fever. . and caused especially by eating improperly stored or undercooked foods.

good refrigeration. . Antibiotics are usually not indicated unless disease has spread beyond the intestine.  There is no specific treatment.  Adequate cooking. and careful handwashing may reduce the frequency of outbreaks.

Lower Digestive System Infections .

The term comes from the Greek word meaning "curved rod" . Campylobacteriosis refers to infection by the group of bacteria known as Campylobacter.

 Improper or incomplete food preparation is the most common way the disease is spread. with poultry accounting for over half the cases. Untreated water and raw milk are also potential sources. .

Mild fever Muscle ache   Headache Diarrhea .   The incubation period after exposure is from one to 10 days.

. Medications used to treat diarrhea by decreasing intestinal motility. such as Loperamide or Diphenoxylate are also useful.

Lower Digestive System Infections .

 Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.   . the hepatitis A virus (HAV) The virus is passed in the feces. there is no lasting. Once the infection ends. chronic phase of illness.

Jaundice then develops. he liver often enlarges.   . typically lasting seven to ten days. Many patients do not visit the doctor until their skin turns yellow. causing pain or tenderness in the right upper part of the abdomen.

  . Once symptoms appear. take a healthy diet. If a patient feels well it is all right to return to school or work even if some jaundice remains. no antibiotics or other medicines will shorten the course of infectious hepatitis. and avoid drinking alcohol and/or any medications that could further damage the liver. Patients should rest in bed as needed.

and is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases worldwide. Hepatitis B is a potentially serious form of liver inflammation due to infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). . An effective vaccine is available that will prevent the disease in those who are later exposed. It occurs in both rapidly developing (acute) and long-lasting (chronic) forms.

and is able to pass through tiny breaks in the skin. or it may lead to cancer of the liver. or the male or female genital area. but they may carry HBV in their blood and pass the infection on to others. HBV infection may destroy the liver through a scarring process. When a person is infected by HBV. called cirrhosis. mouth. the virus enters the bloodstream and body fluids. Some people who are infected by HBV develop no symptoms and are totally unaware of the fact. In its chronic form.   .

 HBV is made up of several fragments. that stimulate the body's immune system to produce the antibodies that can neutralize or even destroy the infecting virus. that seems to cause the liver inflammation. the immune reaction. in fact. It is. not the virus. called antigens. .

 All existing drugs that have been reported to have an effect on Hepatitis B are still experimental. Any non-critical surgery should be postponed. Patients also should rest in bed as needed.  . continue to eat a healthy diet. and avoid alcohol.

 HCV is a blood-borne virus that is and always was the major cause of "transfusion hepatitis. ." which can develop in patients who are given blood or most blood products except for gamma-globulin.

which are then replaced by scar tissue.   . About 20% of chronic carriers develop cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver when the virus damages or destroys large numbers of liver cells. Patients may also feel nauseous or even vomit. Any form of hepatitis may keep the liver from eliminating certain colored (pigmented) substances as it normally does.

Furthermore. HBV. actually forms a covering over the HDV particle.    . and. it is more severe. Its companion virus. but it is seen only in patients already infected by HBV. Perhaps this is why it cannot cause infection on its own. acute infection tends to be more severe. when it occurs. Delta hepatitis can be quite severe. When both viruses are present. The delta virus is a small and incomplete viral particle. patients with both infections are likelier than those with HBV alone to develop chronic liver disease.

it is an acute and short-lived illness that can sometimes cause liver failure. and is not caused by the hepatitis A virus.   . Like hepatitis A. HEV infection occurs mainly in developing countries. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of hepatitis that is transmitted via the intestinal tract. Spread most often by contaminated drinking water.