Culture Social Personal Psychological Buyer .

 Key Factors Cultural Social Personal Psychological   Groups  Membership  Reference  Opinion Leaders Family  Many influencers Roles and Status 5-3 .

Direct Types of Reference Groups b.(1)Primary: Daily STUDENT a. Indirect (2)Secondary: CLUBS (1) Aspirational (+ve) “Want-to-Be” IDOLS (2) Non-inspirational (-ve) “DON’T Want to Be” MICHEAL JACKSON .

Comparative Reference Groups .A group which individuals use as a standard or point of reference in making evaluations or comparisons of themselves and of other individuals or groups . Comparative Reference Groups Normative Reference Groups .A group in which individuals are motivated to gain or maintain acceptance. Normative vs. To promote this acceptance. individuals hold their attitudes in conformity with what they perceive to be the consensus of opinion (norms) among the group members.

 Friendship Groups – Most likely to influence after the family  Shopping Groups – 2 or more people who shop together  Work Groups – Who work together as a part of a work team  Virtual Groups/ Communities  Consumer–Action Groups – Who are dedicated in providing assistance to consumers in order to make correct purchase decisions .

Seals of Approval 9. High Rating in Consumer Reports . Celebrities 2.1. Experts 3. Common Man (someone just like them uses it) 4. The Executive/ Employee Spokesperson 5. Editorial content of Special –interest Magazines 8. Trade/ Spokes Characters or Familiar Cartoon Characters 6. Respected Retailers 7.

Credibility. Conspicuousness of the Product • Verbally conspicuous product – easily explained to others – higher influence by the reference group . Information and Experience • High for consumers – less likely to be influenced by reference groups 2. Attractiveness and Power of the Reference Group 3.1.

Brand Choice Strong Public Luxuries Strong Golf Clubs Snow Skis Sail Boat Wrist Watch Automobiles Dress Clothes Weak Private Luxuries TV Video Games Ice Makers Trash Compactors Product Choice Public Necessities Private Necessities Weak Mattresses Floor Lamps Refrigerators .

 Buying Center Members:       Users Buyers Deciders Gatekeepers Influencers Initiators . Membership will vary for different products and buying situations. Not a fixed and formally identified unit.   Decision-making unit of a buying organization is called its buying center.