CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: CREATIVITY VS.

INDUSTRY
PROF. DR. GERNOT WOLFRAM

European traditions of supporting the arts…
 Since the time of the Enlightenment and the period of

Romanticism exist in Europe the idea of „independent artists“  Art as an expression of „inner values“, dreams, wishes of change and of the need for artistic innovations beyond economic structures („the value of origin works“) An ongoing powerful concept!
Philipp Otto Runge, 177 7- 1810

 Other Positions:
 Aby Warburg: Artist are always connected with the field

of economic structures – in a conscious or unconscious way (f.e. time of the Renaissance)  Eric L. Jones: Every creative process is connected with economic procedures. Very often they are hidden and „tight-lipped“  A more pragmatic and realistic concept about the relations between the Arts and the society.

What concept is more present?
 Many Art Foundations in Europe, as well as the European

Union, support this first approach towards culture  Hundreds of foundations and funding programs in Europe are based on this concept that the Arts need support to be free – the artists shall not reveal their problematic economic position (comp. Bourdieu 1988)
 This concept is very often criticised in the United States:

„Real freedom is when the Arts are independent from institutional fundings“ (Sheers 2010)

 Perhaps there is a need for a need understanding of the role of artists and the arts within the society….  …with a new reflection about funding programmes and existing economic expectations towards artists…  Are the Creative Industries the right way to go?

The paradigm shift in the arts…the rise of the CI
 “Bringing together creativity and culture on the one side

as well as economy on the other side, the non-formal and the formal, the unexpected and the serially expected this has been my passion from the very start inspired by my learnings and university years of philosopher Hans Georg Gadamer to go beyond the methodology of dualism.”  Bernd Fesel, Bridging Creativity and Economy  Discussing Pro`s and Contras of this position can lead to the inherent problems of the CI concept…

The paradigm shift…
 How to define Creative Industries?
 First a view on the word itself:  Creative (lat.creare, crescere): making

something new out of existing things, growing, developping  Fertile (or in german: schöpferisch): inventing something new, reveal a new sight on things

The paradigm shift…
 “The UK’s definition of the creative industries - ‘those

industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talent with the potential to create wealth and jobs through developing intellectual property’ - includes thirteen sectors: advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, interactive leisure software (ie. video games), music, the performing arts, publishing, software, and television and radio.”

The paradigm shift…
 “Because it was the first definition offered by a

government, this original UK definition has been widely adopted by other countries, with sectors adapted based on local commercial and cultural importance.  ‘the interface between creativity, culture, economics and technology as expressed in the ability to create and circulate intellectual capital, with the potential to generate income, jobs and export earnings while at the same time promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity (…)”  -------------- Convincing?-------------Source: http://creativecities.britishcouncil.org/creative-industries/what_are_creative_industries_and_creative_economy

Another definition…
 Attempt of another definition:
 „Creative Industries use the term creativity to

broaden the networks between artists and participants of new businesses with the aim to establish new economic structures which develop an alternative system of values like artistic satisfaction, economic success and alternative funding concepts“ (Wolfram 2012)

Culture and the European Union
 The new cultural program of the European Union „Europe 2014-2020“ (1,6 Billion Euro) is strongly focussed on the Creative Industries  Culture has to proove that there are economic successful concepts behind art projects?  The right way to go?

EU Culture Programme 20142020
 EU Culture Programme 2014-2020  The Culture Programme is the only instrument of the European

Union exclusively dedicated to support arts and culture. During its 10 years of existence as a unified tool, it has supported a vast number of key initiatives that have both contributed to the development of the sector, and of its co-operations across Europe and beyond. The Culture programme has also demonstrated weaknesses that need to be corrected. The next Culture Programme will therefore have to be bold, aligned with the overall strategy launched by the European Agenda for Culture, and embedded in the overall vision of sustainable and inclusive growth outlined by the Europe 2020 strategy. Its objectives will have to be refocused, its design and management improved, and its budget increased.
 TRY TO READ BETWEEN THE LINES…

EU 2014-2020
 Statement on the next EU Culture Programme - Creative Europe:
 Culture Action Europe, in the framework of the we are more – act for

culture in Europe campaign welcomes the European Commission’s proposal for Creative Europe but calls for an improved recognition of the social dimension of arts and culture and the importance of risk taking and experimentation.
 Source: http://www.wearemore.eu/culture-programme/  With an analytical approach one can understand the ‚real messages‘

of this programme (comp. Sievers/Wingert 2012)

Europe 2014-2020 and Creative Industries
 Creative Industries offering great possibilities for artists but they can not replace the genuine character of certain national

approaches towards artistic values and strategies  „Contracts between Arts and Commerce“ (Grave 2002)  But contracts on which cultural base?

 What could that mean - an

innovative Arts Management?

Alternative Options
 Protecting creativity, developping professional

businesses around artictic events (catering, green measurements, using new spaces, finding new partners f.e. in the games industries)  Intensive studying of sucessful role models (f.e. steirischer herbst festival, klangspuren festival)  Delivering and sharing knowlegde or regional levels in english (checking the websites…)  Stronger participation of so-called „minority groups“ (silent audiences)

Alternative options
 Involving current political and social discourses within

planning processes (f.e. unemployment rate in european countries: why shall young people buy tickets for artistic events? Delivering an answer belongs to a modern Arts Management)  „Telling Stories“ – What is the narrative of an artistic concept? (good ideas very often quite „strange formulated“)  Reflecting of Cooporate Cultural Responsibility (CCR)  Pragmatic approaches to Social Media Measures and Crowd Funding Systems – no general solutions

A new approach from Europe
 Based on the european concepts of diversity do we need

  

 

a new strategy for promoting a certain kind of european arts management Including factors like: Narratives, Space, Identity New approaches of sustainability within concepts of cooperation and supporting sub cultural scenes (comp. Wolfram 2012; Föhl 2011) New concepts about the important social impacts of culture (Integration, Globalisation, Discourses of Identity Development of participation

European Culture
 Arts Management in close partnership to artists and to artistic cooperation…
“At a time of economic, social, political and, most of all, identity crisis, people of Arts in Greece fight back the unfair and unnecessary suffering that overflows the country and truly revive spirits and hope by offering Creativity and Art.” (Onassis Cultural Center, Athens, 2011)
Theatre play, based on the novel of Alexandros Papadiamantis

Thinking Local, performing global

USING SPACES OF THE DAILY LIFE
 Call Cutta in a Box/Rimini Protokolle

 Opera under water (Berlin 2011)

Supporting Identity

Medea Electronique Center, Athens, Koumaria

Links
 Summer School for Arts Management in

Epidavros Greece 2013:
 Do we need new cultural identities? – Strategies of Cultural

Management for Representation and Cooperation of Art Institutions and Artists across Europe Summer
 More Information:  http://www.fh-kufstein.ac.at/Veranstaltungen/4th-Kufstein-

Summer-School-for-Arts-Management-2013

 Wolfram, Gernot (Hrsg.): Kulturmanagement und

Europäische Kulturarbeit. Transcript 2012 (comes November 2012)
 More Information:  http://www.transcript-verlag.de/ts1781/ts1781.php