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ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENT 1.Introduction 2.Ecology 3.Ecosystem 4.Food chain 5.Eltonian pyramids 6.Biogeochemical cycle 7.Bio-diversity
ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENT
1.Introduction
2.Ecology
3.Ecosystem
4.Food chain
5.Eltonian pyramids
6.Biogeochemical cycle
7.Bio-diversity

Aarsh mahavidyalaya

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1. INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
  • The environment is subject to changes either natural or by man activities.

  • Most of changes are assimilated by the environment without any appreciable microbes on living organisams- plants,animals and microbes.

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2. ECOLOGY
2. ECOLOGY
  • The science dealing with changes in environment and causes and effects is defined as ecology.

  • Ecology is the science of community and environment.

  • Ecology is the study of structure and function of ecosystem or broadly of nature.

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3 . Ecosystems: Fundamental Characteristics
3 . Ecosystems:
Fundamental Characteristics
  • Structure:

    • Living (biotic)

    • Nonliving (abiotic)

  • Process:

    • Energy flow

    • Cycling of matter (chemicals)

  • Change:

    • Dynamic (not static)

    • Succession, etc.

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    3.1 Abiotic components:
    3.1
    Abiotic components:
    • ABIOTIC components:

    • Solar energy provides practically all the energy for ecosystems.

    • Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems.

    • Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system.

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    3.2 BIOTIC components
    3.2
    BIOTIC components
    • The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition.

    • In this type of classification, there are:

    • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

    • Organisms that produce their own food from an energy source, such as the sun, and inorganic compounds.

    • Organisms that consume other organisms as a food source.

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    4. Food Chains
    4. Food Chains
    • The producers, consumers, and decomposers of each ecosystem make up a food chain.

    • There are many food chains in an ecosystem.

    • Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats who.

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    Example of a Food Chain
    Example of a Food Chain
    Example of a Food Chain Aarsh mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir 8

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    5. ELTONIAN PYRAMID
    5. ELTONIAN PYRAMID
    • Energy flow from one tropic level to another tropic level.

    • This concept of energy transformation was expressed by charles elton the british ecologist using the proverb, one hill can not shelter two tigers.

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    5.1 ECOLOGOCAL PYRAMID
    5.1 ECOLOGOCAL PYRAMID
    • The pyramid are prepared with respect to number, volume and biomass of organisams in a food chain.

    • Solar energy does not return to sun in a cyclic way.i.e. energy pyramid is an open pyramid.

    • There is cyclic movement of nutrients the ecological pyramids represent the tropic structure and functions of ecosystem.

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    5.2 Energy Pyramid
    5.2
    Energy Pyramid

    The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the

    pyramid.

    The least amount of energy is found at top of the pyramid.

    5.2 Energy Pyramid • The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the

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    Trophic level: All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps

    from the primary source of energy

    Trophic level : All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the

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    6. Biogeochemical cycles
    6.
    Biogeochemical cycles
    6. Biogeochemical cycles Carbon Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle cycle Hydrologic cycle Aarsh mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh

    Carbon

    6. Biogeochemical cycles Carbon Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle cycle Hydrologic cycle Aarsh mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh

    Nitrogen

    cycle

    Phosphorus

    cycle

    cycle

    6. Biogeochemical cycles Carbon Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle cycle Hydrologic cycle Aarsh mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh

    Hydrologic

    cycle

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    6.1

    HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

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    • Water is an important constituent of the environment.

    • Living plants and animal contain about 70% water.

    • The cycle includes all he forms of water solid liquid and gases .

    • Due to solar radiations evaporation of water from oceans and surface water bodies takes place.

    • The rain on earth aquifers finds its way in rivers and streams as runoff.

    • The part of rain water also finds its way into subsurface aquifers.

    • The remaining water is in inland seas, atmosphere, living biomass and stream channels.

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    6.2 CARBON CYCLE
    6.2
    CARBON CYCLE

    Carbon in Atmosphere

    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants

    Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere

    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants
    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants
    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants

    Plants use carbon to make food

    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants

    Decomposers break down dead things, releasing carbon to atmosphere and soil

    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants
    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants
    Plants and animals die
    Plants and
    animals die

    Fossil fuels are burned; carbon is returned to atmosphere

    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants
    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants

    Bodies not

    decomposed after many years, become part of oil or coal deposits

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    Animals eat plants and

    take in carbon

    6.2 CARBON CYCLE Carbon in Atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants

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    • Major constitutes of life are carbon,oxygen and hydrogen.

    • Carbon is about 49%in living plants and animals.

    • Plants obtain carbon as food from atmosphere by process of photosynthesis in presence of sun light.

    • Plants are food humans and animals.

    • Dead plants and animals form sediments.

    • Dead plant from buried deep in the ground form fossil fuel very long span of geological time.

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    6.3 NITROGEN CYCLE Atmosphere Biosphere Net Effect: Increase in Nitrogen Nitrogen fixation: in water & soil
    6.3
    NITROGEN CYCLE
    Atmosphere
    Biosphere
    Net Effect:
    Increase in Nitrogen
    Nitrogen fixation:
    in water & soil
    • industrial (fertilizer)
    • combustion
    Increased Erosion
    Lithosphere
    Hydrosphere
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    • The nitrogen is most complex compound of nutrient cycle.

    • The nitrogen is available in different forms in nature .

    • In the constitution of plants and animals nitrogen is an important element.

    • In atmosphere approximately 78%is nitrogen gas.

    • Plant get nitrogen form soil/fertilizer in the form of nitrate.

    • Some nitrates are soluble in water and enter sea through river flow.

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    6.4 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
    6.4 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
    6.4 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE 20 Aarsh mahavidyalaya Prepared By

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    • Phosphorus is an essential and important element in protoplasm.

    • It is required in very small quantity only about 1/10 as much as nitrogen.

    • Links between phosphorous in soil and in ocean are very week.

    • Very little dissolved phosphorous are carried by river water due to less solubility.

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    7. BIODIVERSITY
    7. BIODIVERSITY
    • There are very large number of species of plants animals and microbes available on earth depend on available environnment and changes taking place in environment conditions.

    • Biological diversity of life is termed as biodiversity.

    • There are about 30 to 50 lakhs species of different life forms are on earth however detailed information of only 15 to 20 lakhs of species is available.

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    NECESSITY OF BIODIVERSITY
    NECESSITY OF BIODIVERSITY
    • Urbanization

    • Deforestation

    • Desertification

    • Improper agricultural practicles,increased pollution.

    • Continuous discharge of wastes oceans spill of oil in oceans.

    • In india about 15,000 plant species and 75,ooo animals species are on the verge of extinction due to man activities on forest land.

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